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Dr. Refaat Hamed,
Assistant Professor

Information about Dr. Refaat Hamed at the University of Bradford.

School of Chemistry & Biosciences
(Faculty of Life Sciences)
+44 1274 232371
Photo of Dr. Refaat Hamed


I have always been fascinated by the way nature morphs simple building blocks to create more complex natural cures. This fascination shaped my career, which started by the isolation, structure elucidation and biological evaluation of various classes of phytochemicals, with the focus being iridoid glycosides (MSc studies). I then moved on to pursue my D.Phil. studies at University of Oxford, where I learned the modern aspects of (b-lactam antibiotics) biosynthesis, molecular biology and enzymology (structural and mechanistic). During my D.Phil. and postdoctoral studies time, I have developed myself into a rational-design protein engineer. Challenging chemical transformations and forcing enzymes, via engineering, to catalyse these reactions, with exquisite regio- and stereoselectivity, for biocatalytic purposes, is one of the main themes of my research. Extending my research from engineering enzymes to redesign of biosynthetic pathways to produce unnatural products of pharmaceutical interest is another objective for my research. As a teacher, I do strive to be well-informed, interactive and inspiring. One of my primary goals of teaching is to prepare both undergraduate and graduate students for a successful career.


Natural products discovery, Biosynthesis of natural products, Biocatalysis, Enzymology, Protein Engineering and Synthetic Biology


Details on teaching interests, highlights and modules are available for Dr. Refaat Hamed as follows:

Teaching interests

Organic Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry, Biochemistry

Teaching highlights

NMR SpectroscopyCarbonyl Chemistry Stereoselective SynthesisRetrosynthesis

Professional activities

Information about education, employment and areas of particular interest for Dr. Refaat Hamed is as follows:


  • Assiut University, Egypt - Associate Professor (On leave) in the year 2016 (specified as 01/07/2016)
  • University of Oxford - Research Fellow in the year 2010 (specified as 10/03/2010)
  • University of Illinois Urbana Champaign - Research Fellow in the year 2013 (specified as 30/05/2013)
  • University of St Andrews - Research Fellow in the year 2016 (specified as 16/01/2016)
  • University of Bradford - Lecturer of Chemical Biology in the year 2018 (specified as 27/02/2018)
  •  Assiut University, Egypt - Demonstrator in the year 1999 (specified as 01/12/1999)
  •  Assiut University, Egypt - Assistant lecturer in the year 2004 (specified as 01/04/2004)
  • Assiut University, Egypt - Assistant Professor in the year 2011 (specified as 01/06/2011)


  • Assiut University - BSc in Pharmaceutical Sciences (with highest honors)
  • Assiut University - MSc in Natural Products Chemistry
  • University of Oxford - DPhil Organic Chemistry


There are 24 publications involving or that are attributed to Dr. Refaat Hamed.

Peer Reviewed Journal

Dr. Refaat Hamed has 24 publication(s) listed under peer reviewed journal.
Title Year Publication name Journal Volume Pages Authors Editors ISSN Publisher DOI Location
Self-hydroxylation of the splicing factor lysyl hydroxylase, JMJD6 2012 MedChemComm Mantri, M.;Webby, C.J.;Loik, N.D.;Hamed, R.B.;Nielsen, M.L.;McDonough, M.A.;McCullagh, J.S.O.;Böttger, A.;Schofield, C.J.;Wolf, A.; 10.1039/c1md00225b
Studies on the selectivity of proline hydroxylases reveal new substrates including bicycles 2019 Bioorganic Chemistry 94 Tristan J. Smart, Refaat B. Hamed, Timothy D.W. Claridge, Christopher J. Schofield 0045-2068 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103386
A natural solution to photoprotection and isolation of the potent polyene antibiotic, marinomycin A 2019 Chemical Science 10 Christopher S. Bailey, Joseph S. Zarins-Tutt, Matthias Agbo, Hong Gao, Alberto Diego-Taboada, Maoluo Gan, Refaat B. Hamed, Emily R. Abraham, Grahame Mackenzie, P. Andrew Evans, Rebecca J. M. Goss; 10.1039/C9SC01375J
Stereoselective production of dimethyl-substituted carbapenams via engineered carbapenem biosynthesis enzymes 2017 ACS Catalysis 7 Hamed, Refaat B.; Henry, L.; Claridge, T.D.W.; Schofield, C.
Crotonases: Nature’s exceedingly convertible catalysts 2017 ACS Catalysis 7 Lohans, C.T.; Wang, D.Y.; Wang, J.; Hamed, Refaat B.; Schofield, C.J.
Biocatalytic production of bicyclic β-lactams with three contiguous chiral centres using engineered crotonases 2019 Communications Chemistry 2 Hamed, Refaat B.; Gomez-Castellanos, J.R.; Warhaut, H.L.; Claridge, T.D.W.; Schofield, C.J.
Thioester hydrolysis and C-C bond formation by carboxymethylproline synthase from the crotonase superfamily 2008 Angewandte Chemie - International Edition Batchelar, E.T.;Hamed, R.B.;Ducho, C.;Claridge, T.D.W.;Edelmann, M.J.;Kessler, B.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1002/anie.200803906
Iron-mediated cleavage of C-C bonds in vicinal tricarbonyl compounds in water 2009 Angewandte Chemie - International Edition Mecinović, J.;Hamed, R.B.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1002/anie.200806296
Evidence that thienamycin biosynthesis proceeds via C-5 epimerization: ThnE catalyzes the formation of (2S,5S)-trans-carboxymethylproline 2009 ChemBioChem Hamed, R.B.;Batchelar, E.T.;Mecinović, J.;Claridge, T.D.W.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1002/cbic.200800652
Monitoring the activity of 2-oxoglutarate dependent histone demethylases by NMR spectroscopy: Direct observation of formaldehyde 2010 ChemBioChem Hopkinson, R.J.;Hamed, R.B.;Rose, N.R.;Claridge, T.D.W.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1002/cbic.200900713
Carboxymethylproline synthase catalysed syntheses of functionalised N-heterocycles 2010 Chemical Communications Hamed, R.B.;Mecinović, J.;Ducho, C.;Claridge, T.D.W.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1039/b924519g
Photoactivable peptides for identifying enzyme-substrate and protein-protein interactions 2011 Chemical Communications Rotili, D.;Altun, M.;Hamed, R.B.;Loenarz, C.;Thalhammer, A.;Hopkinson, R.J.;Tian, Y.-M.;Ratcliffe, P.J.;Mai, A.;Kessler, B.M.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1039/c0cc04457a
Stereoselective C-C bond formation catalysed by engineered carboxymethylproline synthases 2011 Nature Chemistry Hamed, R.B.;Gomez-Castellanos, J.R.;Thalhammer, A.;Harding, D.;Ducho, C.;Claridge, T.D.W.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1038/nchem.1011
Evidence for the slow reaction of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase 2 with oxygen 2010 FEBS Journal Flashman, E.;Hoffart, L.M.;Hamed, R.B.;Bollinger Jr., J.M.;Krebs, C.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.07804.x
Synthesis of regio- and stereoselectively deuterium-labelled derivatives of l-glutamate semialdehyde for studies on carbapenem biosynthesis 2009 Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Ducho, C.;Hamed, R.B.;Batchelar, E.T.;Sorensen, J.L.;Odell, B.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1039/b903312b
The 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Oxygenase JMJD6 Catalyses Oxidation of Lysine Residues to give 5S-Hydroxylysine Residues 2011 ChemBioChem Mantri, M.;Loik, N.D.;Hamed, R.B.;Claridge, T.D.W.;McCullagh, J.S.O.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1002/cbic.201000641
Mechanisms and structures of crotonase superfamily enzymes - How nature controls enolate and oxyanion reactivity 2008 Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences Hamed, R.B.;Batchelar, E.T.;Clifton, I.J.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1007/s00018-008-8082-6
Living GenoChemetics by hyphenating synthetic biology and synthetic chemistry in vivo 2017 Nature Communications 8 Sharma, S.V.; Tong, X.; Pubill-Ulldemolins, C.; Cartmell, C.; Bogosyan, E.J.A.; Rackham, E.J.; Marelli, E.; Hamed, Refaat B.; Goss, R.J.M.
The enzymes of β-lactam biosynthesis 2013 Natural Product Reports Hamed, R.B.;Gomez-Castellanos, J.R.;Henry, L.;Ducho, C.;McDonough, M.A.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1039/c2np20065a
Crotonase catalysis enables flexible production of functionalized prolines and carbapenams 2012 Journal of the American Chemical Society Hamed, R.B.;Henry, L.;Gomez-Castellanos, J.R.;Mecinović, J.;Ducho, C.;Sorensen, J.L.;Claridge, T.D.W.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1021/ja208318d
Stereoselective preparation of lipidated carboxymethyl-proline/pipecolic acid derivatives via coupling of engineered crotonases with an alkylmalonyl-CoA synthetase 2013 Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Hamed, R.B.;Henry, L.;Gomez-Castellanos, J.R.;Asghar, A.;Brem, J.;Claridge, T.D.W.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1039/c3ob41525b
Use of Methylmalonyl-CoA Epimerase in Enhancing Crotonase Stereoselectivity 2016 ChemBioChem 17 Hamed, Refaat B.; Gomez-Castellanos, J.R.; Sean Froese, D.; Krysztofinska, E.; Yue, W.W.; Schofield, C.J.
Factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) catalyses the post-translational hydroxylation of histidinyl residues within ankyrin repeat domains 2011 FEBS Journal Yang, M.;Chowdhury, R.;Ge, W.;Hamed, R.B.;McDonough, M.A.;Claridge, T.D.W.;Kessler, B.M.;Cockman, M.E.;Ratcliffe, P.J.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08022.x
Oxygenase-catalyzed ribosome hydroxylation occurs in prokaryotes and humans 2012 Nature Chemical Biology Ge, W.;Wolf, A.;Feng, T.;Ho, C.-H.;Sekirnik, R.;Zayer, A.;Granatino, N.;Cockman, M.E.;Loenarz, C.;Loik, N.D.;Hardy, A.P.;Claridge, T.D.W.;Hamed, R.B.;Chowdhury, R.;Gong, L.;Robinson, C.V.;Trudgian, D.C.;Jiang, M.;MacKeen, M.M.;McCullagh, J.S.;Gordiyenko, Y.;Thalhammer, A.;Yamamoto, A.;Yang, M.;Liu-Yi, P.;Zhang, Z.;Schmidt-Zachmann, M.;Kessler, B.M.;Ratcliffe, P.J.;Preston, G.M.;Coleman, M.L.;Schofield, C.J.; 10.1038/nchembio.1093