Skip to content

Professor Peter Gardner,
Professor of Healthcare Quality & Safety

Information about Professor Peter Gardner at the University of Bradford.

School of Pharmacy & Medical Sciences
(Faculty of Life Sciences)
+44 1274 234358
Photo of Professor Peter Gardner


I am a psychologist by background with particular interests in human factors and human interaction with organisational systems and technology. I have a long history of working on applied issues particularly with a health focus and more specifically in areas related to patient safety. Brief CVI was awarded my first degree, in Psychology, from the University of Sheffield in 1984, and I went on to gain a MSc in Computer Studies from Sheffield City Polytechnic, and a PhD in Cognitive Science from the University of Sheffield. Following this, I was privileged to work with Donald Broadbent and Dianne Berry at the Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford before taking up a post to work with Toby Wall, Chris Clegg and Nik Chmiel at the MRC Social and Applied Psychology Unit in Sheffield (now the Institute of Work Psychology). In 1995 I joined the University of Leeds as a lecturer, and became a Senior Lecturer in 2003. From August 2014 until January 2020, I was Head of the School of Psychology at the University of Leeds. Current appointmentI joined the University of Bradford in February 2020. My role is to work collaboratively with colleagues in this University and in the Wolfson Centre for Applied Health Research (CAHR), in the area of Healthcare Quality and Safety. The Wolfson CAHR is a unique collaboration between the Universities of Leeds and Bradford and the Bradford Institute of Health Research.


Key themes of my research include: Human and system factors in health settings;Health technology;Patient safety;E-health. Currently, I am co-Principal Investigator on an NIHR funded Programme Grant for Applied Research entitled "Improving the Safety and Continuity of Medicines Management at Transitions of Care (ISCOMAT)". This is a £2m project lasting 5 years which has used Experience Based Co-Design methods to help design an intervention for improving medicines management following discharge from hospital for patients diagnosed with Heart Failure. Previous Research Past projects have included: A Department of Health funded Patient Safety Research project to evaluate the implementation of a new design for a spinal connector;A portfolio of studies in collaboration with Cancer Help (the patient information website of Cancer Research UK) investigating the effects of different formats for representing side effect risk information;Involvement in a NIHR HS&DR funded project looking at the impact that robotic surgery has on communication, collaboration and decision-making in the operating theatre.Supervision of PhD topics have included: The impact of a cancer diagnosis on teenagers’ engagement with education; Individual and organisational factors in patient safety; Spillover effects in pro-environmental behaviours Smartphone use in clinical settings; Evaluation of Experience Based Co-Design methods in a Cardiology setting; Factors influencing the use of Electronic Patient Health Records.


Details on teaching interests, highlights and modules are available for Professor Peter Gardner as follows:

Teaching modules

Information about programme modules taught by Professor Peter Gardner.
Title Subject Module code Year
Quality and Service Improvement Project for Physician Associates


There are 66 publications involving or that are attributed to Professor Peter Gardner.

Peer Reviewed Journal

Professor Peter Gardner has 66 publication(s) listed under peer reviewed journal.
Title Year Publication name Journal Volume Pages Authors Editors ISSN Publisher DOI Location
Gaps, traps, bridges and props: a mixed-methods study of resilience in the medicines management system for patients with heart failure at hospital discharge 2019 BMJ Open 9 Fylan B;Marques I;Ismail H;Breen L;Gardner P;Armitage G;Blenkinsopp A 2044-6055 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023440
Exploring variation in implementation of multifactorial falls risk assessment and tailored interventions: A realist review 2023 BMC Geriatrics Alvarado, N., McVey, L., Wright, J., Healey, F., Dowding, D., Cheong, V-L., Gardner, P., Hardiker, N., Lynch, A., Zaman, H., Smith, H., & Randell, R.
The extent of anticholinergic burden across an older Welsh population living with frailty: Cross-sectional analysis of general practice records. 2023 Age and Ageing 52 Cheong, V.L, Mehdizadeh, D. , Todd, O.M, Gardner, P., Zaman, H., Clegg, A., Alldred, D.P., Faisal, M. Oxford University Press
Using routine healthcare data to evaluate the impact of the Medicines at Transitions Intervention (MaTI) on clinical outcomes of patients hospitalised with heart failure: protocol for the Improving the Safety and Continuity Of Medicines management at Transitions of care (ISCOMAT) cluster randomised controlled trial with embedded process evaluation, health economics evaluation and internal pilot 2022 BMJ Open 12 Moreau LA, Holloway I, Fylan B, Hartley S, Cundill B, Fergusson A, Alderson S, Alldred DP, Bojke C, Breen L, Ismail H, Gardner P, Mason E, Powell C, Silcock J, Taylor A, Farrin A, Gale C. On behalf of the ISCOMAT Programme Management Team. 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-054274
What supports and constrains the implementation of multifactorial falls risk assessment and tailored multifactorial falls prevention interventions in acute hospitals? Protocol for a realist review. 2021 BMJ Open 11 Randell R;Wright JM;Alvarado N;Healey F;Dowding D;Smith H;Hardiker N;Gardner P;Ward S;Todd C;Zaman H;McVey L;Davey CJ;Woodcock D; 2044-6055 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049765
A non-randomised feasibility study of an intervention to optimise medicines at transitions of care for patients with heart failure. 2021 Pilot And Feasibility Studies 7 Fylan B; Ismail H; Hartley S; Gale CP; Farrin AJ; Gardner P; Silcock J; Alldred DP; 2055-5784 10.1186/s40814-021-00819-x
Quality assessment with diverse studies (QuADS): an appraisal tool for methodological and reporting quality in systematic reviews of mixed- or multi-method studies. 2021 BMC Health Services Research 21 Harrison R;Jones B;Gardner P;Lawton R; 1472-6963 10.1186/s12913-021-06122-y
The effects of interoperable information technology networks on patient safety: a realist synthesis 2020 Health Services and Delivery Research 8 Keen J, Abdulwahid M, King N, Wright J, Randell R, Gardner P, Waring J, Longo R, Nikolova S, Sloan C & Greenhalgh J. 10.3310/hsdr08400
Patients’ Perspectives About Factors Affecting Their Use of Electronic Personal Health Records in England: Qualitative Analysis 2021 Journal of Medical Internet Research 23 Abd-Alrazaq, A.A., Safi, Z, Bewick, B.M., Househ, M. and Gardner, P.H. 10.2196/17500
Associations Between Anticholinergic Medication Exposure and Adverse Health Outcomes in Older People with Frailty: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 2021 Drugs - Real World Outcomes Mehdizadeh D;Hale M;Todd O;Zaman H;Marques I;Petty D;Alldred DP;Johnson O;Faisal M;Gardner P;Clegg A; 2199-1154 10.1007/s40801-021-00256-5
Improving the Safety and Continuity Of Medicines management at Transitions of care (ISCOMAT): protocol for a process evaluation of a cluster randomised control trial 2020 BMJ Open 10 Powell C, Breen L, Fylan B, Ismail H, Alderson SL, Gale CP, Gardner, P Farrin, AJ, Alldred DP.
Effects of inter-organisational information technology networks on patient safety: a realist synthesis 2020 BMJ Open 10 e036608 Keen, J; Abdulwahid, M; King, N; Wright, J; Randell, R; Gardner, P; Waring, J; Longo, R; Nikolova, S; Sloan, C; Greenhalgh, J 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036608
Identifying the latent failures underpinning medication administration errors: an exploratory study. 2012 Health Services Research 47 Lawton R;Carruthers S;Gardner P;Wright J;McEachan RR; 1475-6773 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2012.01390.x
Safety subcultures in health-care organizations and managing medical error. 2012 Health Services Management Research 25 Sirriyeh R;Lawton R;Armitage G;Gardner P;Ferguson S; 1758-1044 10.1258/hsmr.2011.011018
Product design: Preference for rounded versus angular design elements 2012 Psychology and Marketing 29 595 - 605 Westerman S.;Gardner P.;Sutherland E.;White T.;Jordan K.;Watts D.;Wells S. 0742-6046 10.1002/mar.20546
Color Research and Application 2012 Color Research and Application 37 292 - 301 Westerman S.;Sutherland E.;Gardner P.;Metcalfe R.;Nash J.;Palframan S.;Woodburn N. 0361-2317 10.1002/col.20690
Structuring Users' Self-Report Responses to Website Designs 2012 International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 28 456 - 471 Westerman S.;Shaerf S.;Tuck G.;Gardner P. 1044-7318 10.1080/10447318.2011.622969
The role of gaze and road edge information during high-speed locomotion. 2012 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 38 Kountouriotis GK;Floyd RC;Gardner PH;Merat N;Wilkie RM; 1939-1277 10.1037/a0026123
Optic flow asymmetries bias high-speed steering along roads. 2013 Journal of Vision 13 Kountouriotis GK;Shire KA;Mole CD;Gardner PH;Merat N;Wilkie RM; 1534-7362 10.1167/13.10.23
The design of consumer packaging: Effects of manipulations of shape, orientation, and alignment of graphical forms on consumers' assessments 2013 Food Quality and Preference 27 8 - 17 Westerman S.;Sutherland E.;Gardner P.;Baig N.;Critchley C.;Hickey C.;Mehigan S.;Solway A.;Zervos Z. 0950-3293 10.1016/j.foodqual.2012.05.007
The impact of a cancer diagnosis on the education engagement of teenagers - patient and staff perspective. 2013 European Journal of Oncology Nursing 17 Pini S;Gardner P;Hugh-Jones S; 1532-2122 10.1016/j.ejon.2012.08.005
International priorities for research in nursing informatics for patient care. 2013 Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 192 Dowding DW;Currie LM;Borycki E;Clamp S;Favela J;Fitzpatrick G;Gardner P;Hamer S;Hardiker N;Johnson O;Lawton R;O'Brien A;Randell R;Westbrook J;Whitewood-Moores Z;Dykes PC; 1879-8365
Assessing the quality and usability of smartphone apps for pain self-management. 2014 Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.) 15 Reynoldson C;Stones C;Allsop M;Gardner P;Bennett MI;Closs SJ;Jones R;Knapp P; 1526-4637 10.1111/pme.12327
Integration of robotic surgery into routine practice and impacts on communication, collaboration, and decision making: A realist process evaluation protocol 2014 Implementation Science : Is 9 Randell R.;Greenhalgh J.;Hindmarsh J.;Dowding D.;Jayne D.;Pearman A.;Gardner P.;Croft J.;Kotze A. 1748-5908 10.1186/1748-5908-9-52
Dashboards for improving patient care: review of the literature. 2015 International Journal of Medical Informatics 84 Dowding D;Randell R;Gardner P;Fitzpatrick G;Dykes P;Favela J;Hamer S;Whitewood-Moores Z;Hardiker N;Borycki E;Currie L; 1872-8243 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2014.10.001
Looking and thinking when driving: The impact of gaze and cognitive load on steering 2015 Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 34 108 - 121 Kountouriotis G.;Wilkie R.;Gardner P.;Merat N. 1369-8478 10.1016/j.trf.2015.07.012
Electronic whiteboards: review of the literature. 2015 Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 210 Randell R;Greenhalgh J;Wyatt J;Gardner P;Pearman A;Honey S;Dowding D; 1879-8365 10.3233/978-1-61499-512-8-389
Combined verbal and numerical expressions increase perceived risk of medicine side-effects: a randomized controlled trial of EMA recommendations. 2016 Health Expectations 19 Knapp P;Gardner PH;Woolf E; 1369-7625 10.1111/hex.12344
Embedding robotic surgery into routine practice and impacts on communication and decision making: a review of the experience of surgical teams 2016 Cognition, Technology and Work 18 423 - 437 Randell R.;Honey S.;Alvarado N.;Pearman A.;Greenhalgh J.;Long A.;Gardner P.;Gill A.;Jayne D.;Dowding D. 1435-5558 10.1007/s10111-016-0368-0
Emotion and Coping in the Aftermath of Medical Error: A Cross-Country Exploration 2015 Journal of Patient Safety 11 Harrison R.;Lawton R.;Perlo J.;Gardner P.;Armitage G.;Shapiro J. 10.1097/PTS.0b013e3182979b6f
The daily relationships between staffing, safety perceptions and personality in hospital nursing: A longitudinal on-line diary study. 2016 International Journal of Nursing Studies 59 Louch G;O'Hara J;Gardner P;O'Connor DB; 1873-491X 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.02.010
How teenagers continue school after a diagnosis of cancer: Experiences of young people and recommendations for practice 2016 Future Oncology 12 2785 - 2800 Pini S.;Gardner P.;Hugh-Jones S. 1479-6694 10.2217/fon-2016-0074
A Daily Diary Approach to the Examination of Chronic Stress, Daily Hassles and Safety Perceptions in Hospital Nursing. 2017 International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 24 Louch G;O'Hara J;Gardner P;O'Connor DB; 1532-7558 10.1007/s12529-017-9655-2
Is the internet useful for finding and understanding information about medicines? 2008 International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 16 Nicolson D.;Knapp P.;Gardner P.;Raynor D. 0961-7671
How do people find websites with information about medicines? 2008 International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 16 Knapp P.;Nicolson D.;Gardner P.;Raynor D. 0961-7671
The QWERTY keyboard hampers schoolchildren 1985 British Journal of Psychology 76 525 - 531 Nicolson R.;Gardner P. 0007-1269 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1985.tb01973.x
'What are you crying for? I don't even know you' - The experiences of teenagers communicating with their peers when returning to school. 2019 European Journal of Oncology Nursing 39 Pini S;Hugh-Jones S;Shearsmith L;Gardner P; 1532-2122 10.1016/j.ejon.2018.12.010
The intelligent authoring of computer assisted learning software 1988 Expert Systems 5 302 - 314 Nicolson R.;Scott P.;Gardner P. 0266-4720 10.1111/j.1468-0394.1988.tb00350.x
The effect of different forms of advice on the control of a simulated complex system 1995 Applied Cognitive Psychology 9 S55 - S79 Gardner P.;Berry D. 0888-4080 10.1002/acp.2350090706
Factors that affect the use of electronic personal health records among patients: A systematic review. 2019 International Journal of Medical Informatics 126 Abd-Alrazaq AA;Bewick BM;Farragher T;Gardner P; 1872-8243 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2019.03.014
How and Why School Is Important to Teenagers with Cancer: Outcomes from a Photo-Elicitation Study. 2019 Journal Of Adolescent And Young Adult Oncology 8 Pini S;Gardner P;Hugh-Jones S; 2156-535X 10.1089/jayao.2018.0068
An overview of the features of chatbots in mental health: A scoping review. 2019 International Journal of Medical Informatics 132 Abd-Alrazaq AA;Alajlani M;Alalwan AA;Bewick BM;Gardner P;Househ M; 1872-8243 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2019.103978
Implicit knowledge and fault diagnosis in the control of advanced manufacturing technology? 1996 Behaviour and Information Technology 15 205 - 212 Gardner P.;Chmiel N.;Wall T. 0144-929X 10.1080/014492996120139
Designing and evaluating new ways of working: the application of some sociotechnical tools 2001 Human Factors and Ergonomics In Manufacturing 11 1 - 18 Axtell C.;Pepper K.;Clegg C.;Wall T.;Gardner P. 1090-8471 10.1002/1520-6564(200124)11:1<1::AID-HFM1>3.0.CO;2-6
Familiarity breeds content: The impact of exposure to change on employee openness and well-being 2002 Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 75 217 - 231 Axtell C.;Wall T.;Stride C.;Pepper K.;Clegg C.;Gardner P.;Bolden R. 0963-1798 10.1348/09631790260098596
The impact of structuring information in a patient decision aid 2004 Psychology and Health 19 457 - 477 Carrigan N.;Gardner P.;Conner M.;Maule J. 0887-0446 10.1080/08870440310001652641
Using vignettes to explore judgements of patients about safety and quality of care: the role of outcome and relationship with the care provider. 2011 Health Expectations 14 Lawton R;Gardner P;Plachcinski R; 1369-7625 10.1111/j.1369-7625.2010.00622.x
An augmented reality simulator for ultrasound guided needle placement training. 2007 Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 45 Magee D;Zhu Y;Ratnalingam R;Gardner P;Kessel D; 0140-0118 10.1007/s11517-007-0231-9
Perceived risk of medicine side effects in users of a patient information website: a study of the use of verbal descriptors, percentages and natural frequencies. 2009 British Journal of Health Psychology 14 Knapp P;Gardner PH;Carrigan N;Raynor DK;Woolf E; 1359-107X 10.1348/135910708X375344
Medical error in the hospice setting: exploring the perspectives of management staff. 2010 International Journal of Palliative Nursing 16 Sirriyeh R;Armitage G;Lawton R;Gardner P; 1357-6321 10.12968/ijpn.2010.16.8.377
Perceived risk of tamoxifen side effects: a study of the use of absolute frequencies or frequency bands, with or without verbal descriptors. 2010 Patient Education and Counseling 79 Knapp P;Gardner PH;Raynor DK;Woolf E;McMillan B; 1873-5134 10.1016/j.pec.2009.10.002
Communicating the risk of side effects to patients: an evaluation of UK regulatory recommendations. 2009 Drug Safety 32 Knapp P;Raynor DK;Woolf E;Gardner PH;Carrigan N;McMillan B; 1179-1942 10.2165/11316570-000000000-00000
An engineered solution to the maladministration of spinal injections. 2009 Quality and Safety in Health Care 18 Lawton R;Gardner P;Green B;Davey C;Chamberlain P;Phillips P;Hughes G; 1475-3901 10.1136/qshc.2007.025767
Combining concurrent and sequential methods to examine the usability and readability of websites with information about medicines 2011 Journal of Mixed Methods Research 5 25 - 51 Nicolson D.;Knapp P.;Gardner P.;Raynor D. 1558-6898 10.1177/1558689810385694
The effect of numeracy on the comprehension of information about medicines in users of a patient information website. 2011 Patient Education and Counseling 83 Gardner PH;McMillan B;Raynor DK;Woolf E;Knapp P; 1873-5134 10.1016/j.pec.2011.05.006
Evaluating a combined (frequency and percentage) risk expression to communicate information on medicine side effects to patients. 2013 International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 21 Knapp P;Gardner P;McMillan B;Raynor DK;Woolf E; 2042-7174 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2012.00254.x
What effect does a cancer diagnosis have on the educational engagement and school life of teenagers? A systematic review. 2012 Psycho-Oncology 21 Pini S;Hugh-Jones S;Gardner PH; 1099-1611 10.1002/pon.2082
A realist process evaluation of robot-assisted surgery: integration into routine practice and impacts on communication, collaboration and decision-making 2017 Health Services and Delivery Research 5 Randell, R; Honey, S; Hindmarsh, J; Alvarado, N; Greenhalgh, J; Pearman, A; Long, A; Cope, A; Gill, A; Gardner, P; Kotze, A; Wilkinson, D; Jayne, D; Croft, J; Dowding, D 10.3310/hsdr05200
Factors supporting and constraining the implementation of robot-assisted surgery: a realist interview study. 2019 BMJ Open 9 Randell R;Honey S;Alvarado N;Greenhalgh J;Hindmarsh J;Pearman A;Jayne D;Gardner P;Gill A;Kotze A;Dowding D; 2044-6055 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028635
Applying the reasoned action approach to understanding health protection and health risk behaviors 2017 Social Science and Medicine 195 Conner, M., McEachan, R., Lawton, R. and Gardner, P. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.10.022
Factors Affecting Patients Use of Electronic Personal Health Records in England Cross-Sectional Study 2019 Journal of Medical Internet Research 21 Abd-Alrazaq, A., Bewick, B.M., Farragher, T. and Gardner, P. 10.2196/12373
A Web-Based and Mobile Health Social Support Intervention to Promote Adherence to Inhaled Asthma Medications Randomized Controlled Trial 2016 Journal of Medical Internet Research 18 Koufopoulos, J.T., Conner, M.T., Gardner, P.H. and Kellar, I. 10.2196/jmir.4963
Does changing social influence engender changes in alcohol intake? A meta-analysis. 2016 Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 84 Prestwich, A., Kellar, I., Conner, M., Lawton, R., Gardner, P. and Turgut, L. 10.1037/ccp0000112
Basis of Intentions as a Moderator of the Intention Health Behavior Relationship 2016 Health Psychology 35 Conner, M., McEachan, R., Lawton, R. and Gardner,P. 10.1037/hea0000261
Meta-Analysis of the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to Understanding Health Behaviors 2016 Annals of Behavioral Medicine not known McEachan, R., Taylor, N., Harrison, R., Lawton, R., Gardner, P. and Conner, M. 10.1007/s12160-016-9798-4
Networked information technologies and patient safety: a protocol for a realist synthesis. 2019 Systematic Reviews 8 Keen J;Greenhalgh J;Randell R;Gardner P;Waring J;Longo R;Fistein J;Abdulwahid M;King N;Wright J; 2046-4053 10.1186/s13643-019-1223-1