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Dr Nejat Rahmanian

Associate Professor

Faculty/Dept/School Faculty of Eng & Digital Technologies
Telephone +441274 234552


Dr Nejat Rahmanian is an Associate Professor in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering.  He has been  MSc Program Leader for Advanced  Chemical and Petroleum Engineering since 07/2015.  He is a Chartered Engineer, a Chartered  Scientist and a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. 
He received his doctoral degree from the University of Leeds in early 2010. He has also completed his MBA (Executive) with Distinction. He also holds MSc (1997) and BSc (1993)  all in Chemical Engineering.  

He has over 24 years of experience working in both academia and industry. In industry, he worked for 8 years at Petropars Ltd (an international oil and gas contractor) and during this period he worked in collaboration with a number of international companies (e.g. Shell, PETRONAS, TOTAL and NIOC) towards the development of the South Pars Gas Field, the largest gas-condensate reservoir in the world. During this, he worked closely with International Engineering and Construction Companies in Malaysia, Japan, South Korea, and the UK for the development of the field. 

Nejat was an academic member of the Senate representing the Faculty of Engineering and Informatics for three years (07/2019~07/2022) and a member of the Faculty of Board in the same period. He was a member of Faculty External Relationship/Faculty Partnership (01/2019~07/2021). He is currently a member of the PGR committee (9/2017~05/2023). 


He is a committee member of the IChemE Particle Technology Special Interest  Group and is a member of the UK CCS Group and a member of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (IOM3). Within the faculty, he is now a member of FLTC and also an alternate member of the Faculty's  Health, Safety and Wellbeing Committee.

Nejat received the best publication award in Dec 2019 at the university.  He was awarded the prize entitled 'Best Technical Contribution to the Field of Granulation' sponsored by EFCE, the European Federation of Chemical Engineers and announced at the 3rd International Conference on Granulation in  2007. He also received an award entitled Young Researchers in Particle Technology from IChemE Particle Technology Subject Group in 2008 as the finalist. So far, he has received 19 travel bursaries and scholarships and six prestigious awards.


He is an active researcher with interests in energy, Carbon Capture, and Storage (CCS), and particle technology.  In particle technology, his main focus is on granulation and particle characterization and in oil/gas processing his current focus is CO2 capture, transportation, and storage, process modelling, and simulation of hydrocarbon processes.

Nejat has held four patents, published one book, three chapter books and over 120 journal articles, and peer-reviewed conference proceedings.

Since Nov. 2005, Nejat has been involved in 11 research projects worth around £1.5m from UK Research Councils (EPSRC) and from the industry as an investigator (PI or Co-I). On carbon capture, He secured a fund from the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Malaysia in 2011 (as PI) on Carbon Capture and three grants from HEFCE, the UK on granulation (as PI).

He has completed the supervision of 47 master projects and 12 final-year research projects and supervised jointly or individually 7 PhD projects during his academic career in various places. He was visiting professor at the Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai in 2014/15.   He has ongoing research collaborations with industries and academic institutions in the UK, Canada, the Netherlands, India, Qatar, Turkey, Iran, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and Malaysia. 


He teaches or has taught in UoB or else:

CPE5005-B (Reaction Engineering)

CPE6006-B (Petroleum Engineering)
CPE7013-D (Oil and Gas Management)

CPE7002-B (Desalination Technology)

ENB6009-B (Process Safety & Reliability)

ENM4004-B (Mathematical Methods and Applications)

ENG2092M Petroleum Production Engineering I

ENG3103M Petroleum Production Engineering II

ENG2095M Separation Process Engineering

ENG2093M Chemical Engineering Practice I

ENG3001M Chemical Engineering Practice II

ENG3101M/ENG2313L Chemical Reaction Engineering

ENG3099N Design Project

PH 4039D Computational Pharmaceutics

Aspen HYSYS workshop

Heat Transfer

Mass and Energy Balances

Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering I and II
Pharmaceutical Processes

Engineers in Society


[1] Process modelling, simulation and optimisation of hydrocarbon(oil/gas) processes such as carbon capture from natural gas and flue gases, prilling process, LNG production, crude oil stabilisation, gas condensate stabilisation and MEG recovery. The involved softwares are Aspen Hysys, Aspen PLUS, gPROMS, gSOLID, Fluent for CFD, Matlab, EDEM, OLGA 2000, FORTRAN and C++. [2] Current research on gas processing in particular CO2 captures using absorption and membrane process. [3] Powder technology and in particular on particle characterization, granulation technology with emphasis on scale-up and the product-process relationships, milling, crystallization and prilling. [4] 2D and 3D structure characterization of particles using SEM and X-ray micro tomography, respectively. This is followed by Image Processing. [5] General chemical engineering subjects such as water and wastewater analysis. [6] Multi-disciplinary subjects such as design of diabetic shoes and self-cleaning fabrics.

Professional activities

  • 01-JAN-97: Petropars Limited Company - Process and later on as Senior Process Engineer
  • 01-JAN-11: Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia)  - Senior Lecturer in Chemical Engineering

  • Committee Member of IChemE Particle Technologu Subject Group and member of : IEAGHG, International Energy Agency, Green House Gases R&D GPA (Gas Processors Association) Europe UKCCR, UK Carbon Capture Research IOM, Institute of Materials SCI, Society of Chemical Industry


TitleDEM Simulation of a Single Screw Granulator: The Effect of Liquid Binder on Granule Properties (2024)
AuthorsTony, B., Arthur, Nana Sekyi, Nejat Rahmanian
JournalChemical Engineering Research and Design
TitleHigh pressure adsorption of hydrogen sulfide and regeneration ability of ultra-stable Y zeolite for natural gas sweetening (2023)
AuthorsMehdi Rahmani, Babak Mokhtarani, Nejat Rahmanian
TitleProcess Simulation of Twin-Screw Granulator: The Effect of Screw Configuration on Size Distribution (2023)
AuthorsArthur TB, Sekyi NKG, Rahmanian N*, Pu JH
JournalChemical Engineering and Technology
TitleAir pollution in Iran: The current status and potential solutions (2023)
AuthorsFarzaneh Taghizadeh, Babak Mokhtarani & Nejat Rahmanian
JournalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
TitleEnergy savings from flash steam recovery: An industrial case study (2023)
AuthorsF. Goodarzvand-Chegini, L.Samiee, Nejat Rahmanian
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
TitleA Comprehensive Review on Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Methods (2023)
AuthorsGregory Tarteh Mwenketishi, Hadj Benkreira and Nejat Rahmanian
TitleComparative analysis of granule properties in continuous granulators (2023)
AuthorsNana Sekyi, Adrian Kelly and Nejat Rahmanian,
JournalPowder Technology
DOI 10.1016/j.powtec.2023.118557
TitleThe kihara potential function parameters of methane, ethane, propane, and i-butane: The effects on clathrate hydrate structure determination (2022)
AuthorsSaeed Avaji, Jafar Javanmardi, Amir H. Mohammadi, Nejat Rahmanian, Vladislav De-Gald
JournalFluid Phase Equilibria
TitleAcid Gas Removal by Superhigh Silica ZSM-5: Adsorption Isotherms of Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrogen (2022)
AuthorsMehdi Rahmani, Babak Mokhtarani, Morteza Mafi, and Nejat Rahmanian
JournalIndustrial and Engineering Chemistry Research
TitleFrom agro-waste to encapsulated carbon catalyst for improving stability of naphtha desulfurization (2022)
AuthorsHiba R. Mohammed, Khaleel I. Hamad, Saba A. Gheni , Dhia Y. Aqar c, Marwan A. Mahomood d, Omar A. Habeeb e, Safaa M.R. Ahmed a, Nejat Rahmanian
JournalDiamond and Related Materials
TitleEffective mechanical specific energy: A new approach for evaluating PDC bit performance and cutters wear (2021)
AuthorsMazen A.Z.;Rahmanian N.;Mujtaba I.M.;Hassanpour A.
JournalJournal of Petroleum Science and Engineering
TitleEffect of mixing elements on granule formation in hot melt twin screw granulation (2021)
AuthorsSekyi N.K.G.;Rahmanian N.;Kelly A.L.
JournalChemical Engineering Transactions
TitleSteam consumption minimization using genetic algorithm optimization method: an industrial case study (2020)
AuthorsAlabdulkarem, A; Rahmanian, N
JournalEnergy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects
TitleInfluence of type of granulators on formation of seeded granules (2020)
AuthorsVictoria Kitching, Nejat Rahmanian, Nurul Hanis Jamaluddin, Adrian Kelly
JournalChemical Engineering Research and Design
TitleEffective Mechanical Specific Energy: A New Approach for Evaluating PDC Bit Performance and Cutters Wear (2020)
AuthorsAhmed Z.Mazen, Nejat Rahmanian, Iqbal M.Mujtaba,Ali Hassanpour
JournalJournal of Petroleum Science and Engineering
TitlePrediction of Penetration Rate for PDC Bits Using Indices of Rock Drillability, Cuttings Removal, and Bit Wear (2020)
AuthorsAhmed Z. mazen, Nejat Rahmanian, Iqbal Mujtaba and Ali Hassanpour
JournalSPE Drilling and Completion
TitleA novel split-reflux policy in batch reactive distillation for the optimum synthesis of a number of methyl esters (2019)
AuthorsAqar, D.Y.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.
JournalSeparation and Purification Technology
TitleProcess simulation of impurity impacts on CO2 fluids flowing in pipelines (2019)
AuthorsPeletiri S.;Mujtaba I.;Rahmanian N.
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
TitleEstimation of Dulling Rate and Bit Tooth Wear Using Drilling Parameters and Rock Abrasiveness (2019)
AuthorsAhmed Z. Mazen, Nejat Rahmanian, Iqbal M. Mujtaba, Ali Hassanpour
JournalJournal of Petroleum Engineering and Technology
Title3D printed elastic mould granulation (2019)
AuthorsOkeyo, C., Chowdhury, D.F., Cheung, K., Rahmanian, N.
JournalPowder Technology
TitleMathematical Modelling of Performance and Wear Prediction of PDC Drill Bits: Impact of Bit Profile, Bit Hydraulic, and Rock Strength, Journal of Petroleum Engineering & Science (2019)
AuthorsMazen, A., Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal; Hassanpour, A
JournalJournal of Petroleum Science and Engineering
TitleFeasibility of novel integrated dividing-wall batch reactive distillation processes for the synthesis of methyl decanoate (2018)
AuthorsAqar, D.Y.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.
JournalSeparation and Purification Technology
TitleCO2Pipeline design: A review (2018)
AuthorsPeletiri S.;Rahmanian N.;Mujtaba I.
TitleUsing response surface methodology to opitmize the operating parameters in a top-spray fluidized bed coating system (2018)
AuthorsSeyedin, S.H.; Ardjmand, M.; Safekordi, A.A.; Raygan, S.; Zhalehrajabi, E.; Rahmanian, Nejat
JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
TitleRevamping of an acid gas absorption unit: An industrial case study (2018)
AuthorsKheirinik, M.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Farsi, M.; Garmsiri, M.
JournalJournal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering
TitleEquations of state with group contribution binary interaction parameters for calculation of two-phase envelopes for synthetic and real natural gas mixtures with heavy fractions (2018)
AuthorsNasrifar, K.; Rahmanian, Nejat
JournalOil and Gas Science and Technology
TitleInvestigation about profitability improvement for synthesis of benzyl acetate in different types of batch distillation columns (2018)
AuthorsAqar D.;Rahmanian N.;Mujtaba I.
JournalChemical Engineering Transactions
TitleGrading the impact of impurities in rich CO2 pipeline fluids (2018)
AuthorsPeletiri S.;Rahmanian N.;Mujtaba I.
JournalChemical Engineering Transactions
TitleProcess simulation and evaluation of ethane recovery process using aspen-HYSYS (2018)
AuthorsRezakazemi M.;Rahmanian N.;Jamil H.;Shirazian S.
JournalChemical Engineering Transactions
TitleEffect of packing structure on CO2 capturing process (2018)
AuthorsRahmanian N.;Rehan M.;Sumani A.;Nizami A.
JournalChemical Engineering Transactions
TitleProcess simulation and assessment of crude oil stabilization unit (2018)
AuthorsRahmanian, Nejat; Aqar, D.Y.; Bin Dainure, M.F.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.
TitleFeasibility of Integrated Batch Reactive Distillation Columns for the Optimal Synthesis of Ethyl Benzoate (2017)
AuthorsAqar, D.Y.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.
JournalChemical Engineering and Processing
TitleSimulation and optimization of a continuous Reverse Osmosis desalination process for making fresh water (2017)
AuthorsMirghaderi F.;Rahmanian N.;Patel R.;Manca D.;Mujtaba I.
JournalChemical Engineering Transactions
TitleSignificant profitability improvement for methyl decanoate production using different types of batch distillation columns (2017)
AuthorsAqar D.;Rahmanian N.;Mujtaba I.
JournalChemical Engineering Transactions
TitleEffects of impurities on CO2pipeline performance (2017)
AuthorsPeletiri S.;Rahmanian N.;Mujtaba I.
JournalChemical Engineering Transactions
TitleAn investigation on process of seeded granulation in a continuous drum granulator using DEM (2017)
AuthorsBehjani, M.A.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Ghani N.F.b.A.; Hassanpour, A.
JournalAdvanced Powder Technology
TitleSynthesis of methyl decanoate using different types of batch reactive distillation systems (2017)
AuthorsAqar, D.Y.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.
JournalIndustrial and Engineering Chemistry Research
TitleMethyl lactate synthesis using batch reactive distillation: Operational challenges and strategy for enhanced performance (2016)
AuthorsAqar, D.Y.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.
JournalSeparation and Purification Technology
TitleSimulation and Optimization of a Condensate Stabilization Process (2016)
AuthorsRahmanian, Nejat; Jusoh, L.S.B.; Homayoonfard, M.; Nasrifar, K.; Moshfeghian, M.
JournalJournal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering
TitleAn experimental investigation on seeded granulation of detergent powders (2016)
AuthorsRahmanian N.;Halmi M.;Kong C.;Patel R.;Yusup S.;Mujtaba I.
JournalChemical Engineering Transactions
TitleOptimal design and operation of semi-batch reactive distillation for methyl lactate synthesis with fixed product demand (2016)
AuthorsAqar D.;Rahmanian N.;Mujtaba I.
JournalComputer Aided Chemical Engineering
TitleCFD modelling of a hollow fibre system for CO2 capture by aqueous amine solutions of MEA, DEA and MDEA (2016)
AuthorsGilassi, S.; Rahmanian, Nejat
JournalInternational Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering
TitleIntegrated Batch Reactive Distillation Column Configurations for Optimal Synthesis of Methyl Lactate (2016)
AuthorsAqar, D.Y.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.
JournalChemical Engineering and Processing
TitleAnalysis of Physiochemical Parameters to Evaluate the Drinking Water Quality in the State of Perak, Malaysia (2015)
AuthorsRahmanian, Nejat; bt Ali, S.H.; Homayoonfard, M.; Rehan, M.; Sadef, Y.; Nizami, A.S.
TitleHydrodesulfurization of crude oil over Co-Mo catalysts in a slurry reactor (2015)
AuthorsPorgar, S.; Rahmanian, Nejat
TitleMathematical modelling and numerical simulation of CO2/CH4 separation in a polymeric membrane (2015)
AuthorsGilassi, S.; Rahmanian, Nejat
JournalApplied Mathematical Modelling
TitleProcess simulation and assessment of a back-up condensate stabilization unit (2015)
AuthorsRahmanian, Nejat; Bin Ilias, I.; Nasrifar, K.
JournalJournal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering
TitleShear stress distribution within narrowly constrained structured grains and granulated powder beds (2015)
AuthorsAntony, S.J.; Al-Sharabi, M.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Barakat, T.
JournalAdvanced Powder Technology
TitleA Comparison of Co-Current and Counter-Current Modes of Operation in Urea Prilling Tower (2014)
AuthorsRahmanian, Nejat; Homayoonfard, M.
JournalAdvanced Materials Research
Titleγ-Ray Pre-Irradiated Grafting of Polytetrafluoroethylene Film Membrane (2014)
AuthorsIdris, A.; Rahmanian, Nejat
JournalJurnal Teknologi
TitleHigh-pressure solubility of light gases in heavy n-alkanes from apredictive equation of state: Incorporating Henry’s law constant intobinary interaction parameter (2014)
AuthorsNasrifar, K.; Rahmanian, Nejat
JournalFluid Phase Equilibria
TitleCFD Simulation of Droplet Formation Under Various Parameters in Prilling Process (2014)
AuthorsMuhammad, A.; Pendyala, R.; Rahmanian, Nejat
JournalApplied Mechanics and Materials
TitleNucleation and Condensation Modeling of Metal Vapor in Laval Nozzle (2014)
AuthorsZhalehrajabi, E.; Rahmanian, Nejat
JournalAdvanced Materials Research
TitleEffects of mesh grid and turbulence models on heat transfer coefficient in a convergent-divergent nozzle (2014)
AuthorsZhalehrajabi, E.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Hasan, N.
TitleInvestigation of the Growth of Particles Produced in a Laval Nozzle (2014)
AuthorsZhalehrajabi, E.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Zarrinpashne, S.; Balasubramanian, P.
TitleAnalysis of seeded granulation in high shear granulators by discrete element method (2013)
AuthorsHassanpour A.;Pasha M.;Susana L.;Rahmanian N.;Santomaso A.;Ghadiri M.
JournalPowder Technology
TitleSimulation of urea prilling process: An industrial case study (2013)
AuthorsRahmanian N.;Homayoonfard M.;Alamdari A.
JournalChemical Engineering Communications
TitleStrength and structure of granules produced in continuous granulators (2013)
AuthorsRahmanian, Nejat; Ghadiri, M.
JournalPowder Technology
TitleStrength and structure of granules produced in continuous granulators (2013)
AuthorsRahmanian N.;Ghadiri M.
JournalPowder Technology
TitleFurther investigations on the influence of scale-up of a high shear granulator on the granule properties (2013)
AuthorsRahmanian N.;Ganimi T.;Ghadiri M.
TitleSeeded granulation (2011)
AuthorsRahmanian N.;Ghadiri M.;Jia X.
JournalPowder Technology
TitleEffects of process parameters on granules properties produced in a high shear granulator (2011)
AuthorsRahmanian N.;Naji A.;Ghadiri M.
JournalChemical Engineering Research and Design
TitleSeeded granulation (2011)
AuthorsRahmanian, Nejat; Ghadiri, M.; Jia, X.
JournalPowder Technology
TitleEffects of process parameters on granules properties produced in a high shear granulator (2011)
AuthorsRahmanian, Nejat; Naji, A.; Ghadiri, M.
JournalChemical Engineering Research and Design
TitleEffect of granulation scale-up on the strength of granules (2009)
AuthorsHassanpour A.;Kwan C.;Ng B.;Rahmanian N.;Ding Y.;Antony S.;Jia X.;Ghadiri M.
JournalPowder Technology
TitleCharacterisation of granule structure and strength made in a high shear granulator (2009)
AuthorsRahmanian, Nejat; Ghadiri, M.; Jia, X.; Stepanek, F.
JournalPowder Technology
TitleCharacterisation of granule structure and strength made in a high shear granulator (2009)
AuthorsRahmanian N.;Ghadiri M.;Jia X.;Stepanek F.
JournalPowder Technology
TitleEffect of scale of operation on granule strength in high shear granulators (2008)
AuthorsRahmanian N.;Ghadiri M.;Ding Y.
JournalChemical Engineering Sciences
TitleScale-up of high-shear mixer granulators (2008)
AuthorsRahmanian N.;Ng B.;Hassanpour A.;Ding Y.;Antony J.;Jia X.;Ghadiri M.;van der Wel P.;Krug-Polman A.;York D.;Bayly A.;Tan H.
JournalKONA Powder and Particle Journal

TitleProduction of Blue Ammonia as a Clean Fuel in Qatar (2023)
AuthorsShamari, M Al, Khodary, A., Han, D.S., Mujtaba, I.M., Rahmanian, N.,
PublisherThe Italian Association of Chemical Engineering
TitleCarbon Dioxide Sequestration Methodothologies—A Review (2023)
AuthorsGregory Mwenketishi, Hadj Benkreira, Nejat Rahmanian
PublisherScientific Research Publishing
DOIDOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2023.124026
TitleInvestigation of Effect of Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles on the Thermal Properties of Water-Based Fluids in a Double Tube Heat Exchanger (2022)
AuthorsS. Porgar & Nejat Rahmanian
JournalBiointerface Research in Applied Chemistry
TitleApplications of Biocatalysts for Sustainable Oxidation of Phenolic Pollutants: A Review (2021)
AuthorsSanaz Salehi, Kourosh Abdollahi Reza Panahi, Nejat Rahmanian , Mozaffar Shakeri and Babak Mokhtarani
TitleComparative Techno-Economic Analysis of Carbon Capture Processes: Pre-Combustion, Post-Combustion, and Oxy-Fuel Combustion Operations (2021)
AuthorsMahdi Kheirinik , Shaab Ahmed and Nejat Rahmanian
PublisherMDPI su132413567
TitleDecision-making model for supply chain risk management in the petroleum industry (2020)
AuthorsOlatunde Aroge, Nejat Rahmanian, Jose Eduardo Munive-Hernandez, Reza Abdi
JournalInt. J. Decision Sciences, Risk and Management
PublisherInder Science Publishers

TitleLeila Samiee a, Nejat Rahmanian (2024)
AuthorsLeila Samiee, Nejat Rahmanian
JournalReference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering
TitleCarbon capture: Postcombustion carbon capture using polymeric membrane (2017)
AuthorsRahmanian N.;Gilassi S.
JournalThe Water-Food-Energy Nexus: Processes, Technologies, and Challenges
TitleAn experimental investigation into the permeability and selectivity of PTFE membrane: a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide (2016)
AuthorsS. Gilassi and Nejat Rahmanian
JournalMembrane Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment, Energy and Environment
PublisherCRC Press
TitleOil and Gas Properties and Correlations (2016)
AuthorsMahdavi E.;Suleymani M.;Rahmanian N.
JournalFluid Phase Behavior for Conventional and Unconventional Oil and Gas Reservoirs

Title Author(s)
Proccss simulation and evaluation of ethane recovery process using Aspen-HYSYS (2018)Rczakazemi M.;Rahmanian N.;Jameel H.;Shirazian S.
Effect of various packing structure on gas absorption for enhanced CO2 capture (2018)Rahmanian N.;Rehan M.;Sumani A.;Nizami A.S.
Investigation about profitability improvement for synthesis of benzyl acetate in different types of batch distillation columns (2018)Aqw D.Y.;Rahmanian N.;Mujtaba I.M.
Energy Savings in CO2Capture System through Intercooling Mechanism (2017)Rehan M.;Rahmanian N.;Hyatt X.;Peletiri S.;Nizami A.
An experimental investigation on seeded granulation of detergent powders (2016)Rahmanian N.;Halmi M.;Choy D.;Patel R.;Yusup S.;Mujtaba I.
Urea finishing process: Prilling versus granulation (2015)Rahmanian N.;Naderi S.;Supuk E.;Abbas R.;Hassanpour A.
Heat exchanger network optimization by differential evolution method (2014)Thuy N.;Pendyala R.;Rahmanian N.;Marneni N.
Flow analysis of melted urea in a perforated rotating bucket (2013)Muhammad A.;Rahmanian N.;Pendyala R.
Effect of Primary Particle Size on the Granule Properties (2009)Rahmanian N.;Ghadiri M.;Ding Y.;Jia X.