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Professor Peter Gardner

Professor of Healthcare Quality & Safety

Faculty/Dept/School School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences
(Faculty of Life Sciences)
Telephone +441274 234358


I am a psychologist by background with particular interests in human factors and human interaction with organisational systems and technology. I have a long history of working on applied issues particularly with a health focus and more specifically in areas related to patient safety.

Brief CV

I was awarded my first degree, in Psychology, from the University of Sheffield in 1984, and I went on to gain a MSc in Computer Studies from Sheffield City Polytechnic, and a PhD in Cognitive Science from the University of Sheffield. Following this, I was privileged to work with Donald Broadbent and Dianne Berry at the Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford before taking up a post to work with Toby Wall, Chris Clegg and Nik Chmiel at the MRC Social and Applied Psychology Unit in Sheffield (now the Institute of Work Psychology).

In 1995 I joined the University of Leeds as a lecturer, and became a Senior Lecturer in 2003. From August 2014 until January 2020, I was Head of the School of Psychology at the University of Leeds.

Current appointment

I joined the University of Bradford in February 2020. My role is to work collaboratively with colleagues in this University and in the Wolfson Centre for Applied Health Research (CAHR), in the area of Healthcare Quality and Safety. The Wolfson CAHR is a unique collaboration between the Universities of Leeds and Bradford and the Bradford Institute of Health Research.


Key themes of my research include:

  • Human and system factors in health settings;
  • Health technology;
  • Patient safety;
  • E-health. 
Currently, I am co-Principal Investigator on an NIHR funded Programme Grant for Applied Research entitled "Improving the Safety and Continuity  of Medicines Management at Transitions of Care (ISCOMAT)". This is a £2m project lasting 5 years which has used Experience Based Co-Design methods to help design an intervention for improving medicines management following discharge from hospital for patients diagnosed with Heart Failure.  

Previous Research

Past projects have included:

  • A Department of Health funded Patient Safety Research project to evaluate the implementation of a new design for a spinal connector;
  • A portfolio of studies in collaboration with Cancer Help (the patient information website of Cancer Research UK) investigating the effects of different formats for representing side effect risk information;
  • Involvement in a NIHR HS&DR funded project looking at the impact that robotic surgery has on communication, collaboration and decision-making in the operating theatre.
Supervision of PhD topics have included:

  • The impact of a cancer diagnosis on teenagers’ engagement with education;
  • Individual and organisational factors in patient safety;
  • Spillover effects in pro-environmental behaviours 
  • Smartphone use in clinical settings; 
  • Evaluation of Experience Based Co-Design methods in a Cardiology setting;
  • Factors influencing the use of Electronic Patient Health Records.


Peer Reviewed Journal
TitleQuality assessment with diverse studies (QuADS): an appraisal tool for methodological and reporting quality in systematic reviews of mixed- or multi-method studies. (2021)
AuthorsHarrison R;Jones B;Gardner P;Lawton R;
JournalBMC Health Services Research
TitleAssociations Between Anticholinergic Medication Exposure and Adverse Health Outcomes in Older People with Frailty: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (2021)
AuthorsMehdizadeh D;Hale M;Todd O;Zaman H;Marques I;Petty D;Alldred DP;Johnson O;Faisal M;Gardner P;Clegg A;
JournalDrugs - Real World Outcomes
TitlePatients’ Perspectives About Factors Affecting Their Use of Electronic Personal Health Records in England: Qualitative Analysis (2021)
AuthorsAbd-Alrazaq, A.A., Safi, Z, Bewick, B.M., Househ, M. and Gardner, P.H.
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
TitleA non-randomised feasibility study of an intervention to optimise medicines at transitions of care for patients with heart failure. (2021)
AuthorsFylan B; Ismail H; Hartley S; Gale CP; Farrin AJ; Gardner P; Silcock J; Alldred DP;
JournalPilot And Feasibility Studies
TitleThe effects of interoperable information technology networks on patient safety: a realist synthesis (2020)
AuthorsKeen J, Abdulwahid M, King N, Wright J, Randell R, Gardner P, Waring J, Longo R, Nikolova S, Sloan C & Greenhalgh J.
JournalHealth Services and Delivery Research
TitleEffects of inter-organisational information technology networks on patient safety: a realist synthesis (2020)
AuthorsKeen, J; Abdulwahid, M; King, N; Wright, J; Randell, R; Gardner, P; Waring, J; Longo, R; Nikolova, S; Sloan, C; Greenhalgh, J
JournalBMJ Open
TitleImproving the Safety and Continuity Of Medicines management at Transitions of care (ISCOMAT): protocol for a process evaluation of a cluster randomised control trial (2020)
AuthorsPowell C, Breen L, Fylan B, Ismail H, Alderson SL, Gale CP, Gardner, P Farrin, AJ, Alldred DP.
JournalBMJ Open
Title'What are you crying for? I don't even know you' - The experiences of teenagers communicating with their peers when returning to school. (2019)
AuthorsPini S;Hugh-Jones S;Shearsmith L;Gardner P;
JournalEuropean Journal of Oncology Nursing
TitleFactors that affect the use of electronic personal health records among patients: A systematic review. (2019)
AuthorsAbd-Alrazaq AA;Bewick BM;Farragher T;Gardner P;
JournalInternational Journal of Medical Informatics
TitleFactors Affecting Patients Use of Electronic Personal Health Records in England Cross-Sectional Study (2019)
AuthorsAbd-Alrazaq, A., Bewick, B.M., Farragher, T. and Gardner, P.
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
TitleAn overview of the features of chatbots in mental health: A scoping review. (2019)
AuthorsAbd-Alrazaq AA;Alajlani M;Alalwan AA;Bewick BM;Gardner P;Househ M;
JournalInternational Journal of Medical Informatics
TitleHow and Why School Is Important to Teenagers with Cancer: Outcomes from a Photo-Elicitation Study. (2019)
AuthorsPini S;Gardner P;Hugh-Jones S;
JournalJournal Of Adolescent And Young Adult Oncology
TitleGaps, traps, bridges and props: a mixed-methods study of resilience in the medicines management system for patients with heart failure at hospital discharge (2019)
AuthorsFylan B;Marques I;Ismail H;Breen L;Gardner P;Armitage G;Blenkinsopp A
JournalBMJ Open
TitleFactors supporting and constraining the implementation of robot-assisted surgery: a realist interview study. (2019)
AuthorsRandell R;Honey S;Alvarado N;Greenhalgh J;Hindmarsh J;Pearman A;Jayne D;Gardner P;Gill A;Kotze A;Dowding D;
JournalBMJ Open
TitleNetworked information technologies and patient safety: a protocol for a realist synthesis. (2019)
AuthorsKeen J;Greenhalgh J;Randell R;Gardner P;Waring J;Longo R;Fistein J;Abdulwahid M;King N;Wright J;
JournalSystematic Reviews
TitleA realist process evaluation of robot-assisted surgery: integration into routine practice and impacts on communication, collaboration and decision-making (2017)
AuthorsRandell, R; Honey, S; Hindmarsh, J; Alvarado, N; Greenhalgh, J; Pearman, A; Long, A; Cope, A; Gill, A; Gardner, P; Kotze, A; Wilkinson, D; Jayne, D; Croft, J; Dowding, D
JournalHealth Services and Delivery Research
TitleA Daily Diary Approach to the Examination of Chronic Stress, Daily Hassles and Safety Perceptions in Hospital Nursing. (2017)
AuthorsLouch G;O'Hara J;Gardner P;O'Connor DB;
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Medicine
TitleApplying the reasoned action approach to understanding health protection and health risk behaviors (2017)
AuthorsConner, M., McEachan, R., Lawton, R. and Gardner, P.
JournalSocial Science and Medicine
TitleA Web-Based and Mobile Health Social Support Intervention to Promote Adherence to Inhaled Asthma Medications Randomized Controlled Trial (2016)
AuthorsKoufopoulos, J.T., Conner, M.T., Gardner, P.H. and Kellar, I.
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
TitleCombined verbal and numerical expressions increase perceived risk of medicine side-effects: a randomized controlled trial of EMA recommendations. (2016)
AuthorsKnapp P;Gardner PH;Woolf E;
JournalHealth Expectations
TitleEmbedding robotic surgery into routine practice and impacts on communication and decision making: a review of the experience of surgical teams (2016)
AuthorsRandell R.;Honey S.;Alvarado N.;Pearman A.;Greenhalgh J.;Long A.;Gardner P.;Gill A.;Jayne D.;Dowding D.
JournalCognition, Technology and Work
TitleDoes changing social influence engender changes in alcohol intake? A meta-analysis. (2016)
AuthorsPrestwich, A., Kellar, I., Conner, M., Lawton, R., Gardner, P. and Turgut, L.
JournalJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
TitleHow teenagers continue school after a diagnosis of cancer: Experiences of young people and recommendations for practice (2016)
AuthorsPini S.;Gardner P.;Hugh-Jones S.
JournalFuture Oncology
TitleBasis of Intentions as a Moderator of the Intention Health Behavior Relationship (2016)
AuthorsConner, M., McEachan, R., Lawton, R. and Gardner,P.
JournalHealth Psychology
TitleMeta-Analysis of the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to Understanding Health Behaviors (2016)
AuthorsMcEachan, R., Taylor, N., Harrison, R., Lawton, R., Gardner, P. and Conner, M.
JournalAnnals of Behavioral Medicine
TitleThe daily relationships between staffing, safety perceptions and personality in hospital nursing: A longitudinal on-line diary study. (2016)
AuthorsLouch G;O'Hara J;Gardner P;O'Connor DB;
JournalInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
TitleLooking and thinking when driving: The impact of gaze and cognitive load on steering (2015)
AuthorsKountouriotis G.;Wilkie R.;Gardner P.;Merat N.
JournalTransportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
TitleElectronic whiteboards: review of the literature. (2015)
AuthorsRandell R;Greenhalgh J;Wyatt J;Gardner P;Pearman A;Honey S;Dowding D;
JournalStudies in Health Technology and Informatics
TitleEmotion and Coping in the Aftermath of Medical Error: A Cross-Country Exploration (2015)
AuthorsHarrison R.;Lawton R.;Perlo J.;Gardner P.;Armitage G.;Shapiro J.
JournalJournal of Patient Safety
TitleDashboards for improving patient care: review of the literature. (2015)
AuthorsDowding D;Randell R;Gardner P;Fitzpatrick G;Dykes P;Favela J;Hamer S;Whitewood-Moores Z;Hardiker N;Borycki E;Currie L;
JournalInternational Journal of Medical Informatics
TitleAssessing the quality and usability of smartphone apps for pain self-management. (2014)
AuthorsReynoldson C;Stones C;Allsop M;Gardner P;Bennett MI;Closs SJ;Jones R;Knapp P;
JournalPain medicine (Malden, Mass.)
TitleIntegration of robotic surgery into routine practice and impacts on communication, collaboration, and decision making: A realist process evaluation protocol (2014)
AuthorsRandell R.;Greenhalgh J.;Hindmarsh J.;Dowding D.;Jayne D.;Pearman A.;Gardner P.;Croft J.;Kotze A.
JournalImplementation Science : Is
TitleThe impact of a cancer diagnosis on the education engagement of teenagers - patient and staff perspective. (2013)
AuthorsPini S;Gardner P;Hugh-Jones S;
JournalEuropean Journal of Oncology Nursing
TitleThe design of consumer packaging: Effects of manipulations of shape, orientation, and alignment of graphical forms on consumers' assessments (2013)
AuthorsWesterman S.;Sutherland E.;Gardner P.;Baig N.;Critchley C.;Hickey C.;Mehigan S.;Solway A.;Zervos Z.
JournalFood Quality and Preference
TitleOptic flow asymmetries bias high-speed steering along roads. (2013)
AuthorsKountouriotis GK;Shire KA;Mole CD;Gardner PH;Merat N;Wilkie RM;
JournalJournal of Vision
TitleInternational priorities for research in nursing informatics for patient care. (2013)
AuthorsDowding DW;Currie LM;Borycki E;Clamp S;Favela J;Fitzpatrick G;Gardner P;Hamer S;Hardiker N;Johnson O;Lawton R;O'Brien A;Randell R;Westbrook J;Whitewood-Moores Z;Dykes PC;
JournalStudies in Health Technology and Informatics
TitleEvaluating a combined (frequency and percentage) risk expression to communicate information on medicine side effects to patients. (2013)
AuthorsKnapp P;Gardner P;McMillan B;Raynor DK;Woolf E;
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmacy Practice
TitleColor Research and Application (2012)
AuthorsWesterman S.;Sutherland E.;Gardner P.;Metcalfe R.;Nash J.;Palframan S.;Woodburn N.
JournalColor Research and Application
TitleThe role of gaze and road edge information during high-speed locomotion. (2012)
AuthorsKountouriotis GK;Floyd RC;Gardner PH;Merat N;Wilkie RM;
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance
TitleIdentifying the latent failures underpinning medication administration errors: an exploratory study. (2012)
AuthorsLawton R;Carruthers S;Gardner P;Wright J;McEachan RR;
JournalHealth Services Research
TitleWhat effect does a cancer diagnosis have on the educational engagement and school life of teenagers? A systematic review. (2012)
AuthorsPini S;Hugh-Jones S;Gardner PH;
TitleProduct design: Preference for rounded versus angular design elements (2012)
AuthorsWesterman S.;Gardner P.;Sutherland E.;White T.;Jordan K.;Watts D.;Wells S.
JournalPsychology and Marketing
TitleStructuring Users' Self-Report Responses to Website Designs (2012)
AuthorsWesterman S.;Shaerf S.;Tuck G.;Gardner P.
JournalInternational Journal of Human-Computer Interaction
TitleSafety subcultures in health-care organizations and managing medical error. (2012)
AuthorsSirriyeh R;Lawton R;Armitage G;Gardner P;Ferguson S;
JournalHealth Services Management Research
TitleCombining concurrent and sequential methods to examine the usability and readability of websites with information about medicines (2011)
AuthorsNicolson D.;Knapp P.;Gardner P.;Raynor D.
JournalJournal of Mixed Methods Research
TitleUsing vignettes to explore judgements of patients about safety and quality of care: the role of outcome and relationship with the care provider. (2011)
AuthorsLawton R;Gardner P;Plachcinski R;
JournalHealth Expectations
TitleThe effect of numeracy on the comprehension of information about medicines in users of a patient information website. (2011)
AuthorsGardner PH;McMillan B;Raynor DK;Woolf E;Knapp P;
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
TitlePerceived risk of tamoxifen side effects: a study of the use of absolute frequencies or frequency bands, with or without verbal descriptors. (2010)
AuthorsKnapp P;Gardner PH;Raynor DK;Woolf E;McMillan B;
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
TitleMedical error in the hospice setting: exploring the perspectives of management staff. (2010)
AuthorsSirriyeh R;Armitage G;Lawton R;Gardner P;
JournalInternational Journal of Palliative Nursing
TitleAn engineered solution to the maladministration of spinal injections. (2009)
AuthorsLawton R;Gardner P;Green B;Davey C;Chamberlain P;Phillips P;Hughes G;
JournalQuality and Safety in Health Care
TitlePerceived risk of medicine side effects in users of a patient information website: a study of the use of verbal descriptors, percentages and natural frequencies. (2009)
AuthorsKnapp P;Gardner PH;Carrigan N;Raynor DK;Woolf E;
JournalBritish Journal of Health Psychology
TitleCommunicating the risk of side effects to patients: an evaluation of UK regulatory recommendations. (2009)
AuthorsKnapp P;Raynor DK;Woolf E;Gardner PH;Carrigan N;McMillan B;
JournalDrug Safety
TitleIs the internet useful for finding and understanding information about medicines? (2008)
AuthorsNicolson D.;Knapp P.;Gardner P.;Raynor D.
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmacy Practice
TitleHow do people find websites with information about medicines? (2008)
AuthorsKnapp P.;Nicolson D.;Gardner P.;Raynor D.
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmacy Practice
TitleAn augmented reality simulator for ultrasound guided needle placement training. (2007)
AuthorsMagee D;Zhu Y;Ratnalingam R;Gardner P;Kessel D;
JournalMedical and Biological Engineering and Computing
TitleThe impact of structuring information in a patient decision aid (2004)
AuthorsCarrigan N.;Gardner P.;Conner M.;Maule J.
JournalPsychology and Health
TitleFamiliarity breeds content: The impact of exposure to change on employee openness and well-being (2002)
AuthorsAxtell C.;Wall T.;Stride C.;Pepper K.;Clegg C.;Gardner P.;Bolden R.
JournalJournal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
TitleDesigning and evaluating new ways of working: the application of some sociotechnical tools (2001)
AuthorsAxtell C.;Pepper K.;Clegg C.;Wall T.;Gardner P.
JournalHuman Factors and Ergonomics In Manufacturing
TitleImplicit knowledge and fault diagnosis in the control of advanced manufacturing technology? (1996)
AuthorsGardner P.;Chmiel N.;Wall T.
JournalBehaviour and Information Technology
TitleThe effect of different forms of advice on the control of a simulated complex system (1995)
AuthorsGardner P.;Berry D.
JournalApplied Cognitive Psychology
TitleThe intelligent authoring of computer assisted learning software (1988)
AuthorsNicolson R.;Scott P.;Gardner P.
JournalExpert Systems
TitleThe QWERTY keyboard hampers schoolchildren (1985)
AuthorsNicolson R.;Gardner P.
JournalBritish Journal of Psychology