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Web pages and web documents

This is the rule for referencing ordinary text-based web pages.

To find an author, try the bottom of the webpage, or the homepage or "about us" or "contact us" pages of the website.

The "publisher" of a webpage is the organisation that is responsible for the page. It is an optional piece of information, but if a webpage has a personal author who is writing on behalf of an organisation, it can be useful to give the name of the publisher to show that they are a reliable source.

A webpage reference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title. Publisher (this is optional). Web address and date accessed.

Examples of references

University of Bradford Library (2017) What is referencing and citing? University of Bradford. https://www.bradford.ac.uk/library/help/referencing/ Accessed 1 September 2017.

Example of citing in the text of your work: University of Bradford Library (2017) or (University of Bradford Library 2017).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s). Use family name, followed by initial(s). Alternatively, the corporate author of the document, that is, the organisation that writes and updates the website.
  2. Year of publication or the date the website was last updated (in round brackets). If you cannot find a date use (no date).
  3. Title of the document, which must be in italics (or the first few words of the document if the title is not clear).
  4. (This is optional) Publisher (if this can be identified).
  5. Web address.
  6. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the webpage.

EndNote reference type - use Web Page

Web documents

For a PDF or Word document accessed online, use a slightly different template.

A web document reference will look like this:

Author(s) (Date) Title. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher. Report series and number. Web address and date accessed.

Examples of references

Roth, H.J. (2015) The dynamics of regional cooperation in Southeast Asia.Geneva Centre for Security Policy. Geneva Papers – Research Series 14/15. http://www.gcsp.ch/download/4123/101323 Accessed 14 September 2016.


Hosny, A (2015) Are we sure about the effects of the Egyptian uprisings? A sure approach. Giza: Economic Research Forum. Working Paper No. 945. http://erf.org.eg/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/945.pdf  Accessed 14 September 2016.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2019) Alcohol interventions in secondary and further education.  London: NICE. NICE guideline NG135 https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng135 Accessed 21 August 2019.

Example of citing in the text of your work

Roth (2015) or (Roth 2015)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s). Use family name, followed by initial(s). Alternatively, the corporate author of the document, that is, the organisation that writes and updates the website.
  2. Year of publication or the date the website was last updated (in round brackets). If you cannot find a date use (no date).
  3. Title of the document, which must be in italics (or the first few words of the document if the title is not clear). Include any subtitle
  4. (This is optional) Place of publication.
  5. Publisher .
  6. Report series and number (if in a series)
  7. Web address.
  8. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the webpage

Electronic sources apart from ordinary web pages

Tweets

A reference to a tweet should include the following information, in this order:

1. Author’s Twitter name (@ name)

2. Date of publication (year the message was sent, in brackets)

3. Full text of the tweet, in italics.

4. (This is optional) Publisher (if this can be identified)- for a tweet from an organisation, this will be the organisation’s name, which should be in the Twitter bio.

5. Date the tweet was posted.

6. Web address.

7. “Accessed” followed by the date you read the tweet.

So a tweet reference will look like this:

Twitter name (Year) Full text of tweet. Publisher (this is optional). Date tweet was posted. Web address and date accessed.

Example of citation in text

(@NHSChoices 2014) or @NHSChoices (2014)

Example of reference

@NHSChoices (2014) High-salt diet linked to 1.6 million heart deaths. NHS Choices. 15 Aug 2014. https://twitter.com/NHSChoices/status/500201489168875520 Accessed 15 Aug 2014.

EndNote reference type – use Web Page (In order for the full date that the tweet was sent to display correctly, enter it into the Last Update Date field in your EndNote record)

Blog posts

A reference to a blog post will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title. Publisher. Web address and date accessed.

Example of reference

Barnes, A. (2006) Enzyme could help Celiac Disease patients tolerate gluten:10 September. The Dermatitis Herpetiformis Online Community Blog. http://www.dermatitisherpetiformis.org.uk/dhocblog/2006/09/enzyme-could-help-celiac-disease.html Accessed 28 June 2014.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Barnes (2006) or (Barnes, 2006).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author’s name(s). Use family name, followed by initial(s), or the screen name as given on the weblog.
  2. Year the post was put up on the blog site (in round brackets).
  3. Title of message: Day and month of the posted message, all in italics.
  4. Publisher- this should be the name of the blog.
  5. Web address
  6. “Accessed” then the date you looked at the post.

EndNote reference type – use Web Page (For the full date that the blog entry was posted to display correctly, enter it into the Last Update Date field in your EndNote record)

Wikis

A wiki is a collaborative web site which can be amended by any contributor. The information given cannot be relied on. You should generally not cite information from a wiki in academic work, and if you do use information from a wiki it should be backed up with supporting evidence from peer-reviewed or trusted articles, journals or books.

If you have a good reason to reference a page from a wiki, follow the rules for referencing webpages and web documents, using the name of the wiki as the author.

So a reference to a wiki page will look like: Author(s) (Year) Title. Publisher (this is optional). Web address and date accessed.

Example of citation in text

The edit war is an interesting phenomenon of collaborative online working (see, for example, Wikipedia 2014).

Example of reference

Wikipedia (2014) Jane of England. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Lady_Jane_Grey#Jane_of_England Accessed 31 May 2014.

EndNote reference type - use Web Page.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

A reference to a systematic review within the Cochrane Database should follow the rules for referencing Other Types of Source.

Computer games

A reference to a computer game should include the following information, in this order:

1. Author (if given) - use family name followed by initial, or the corporate author- the organisation that created the game (give the name as listed on the version of the game you have).

2. Date (if given) (in round brackets).

3. Title of game, which must be in italics.

4. [Computer game] in square brackets.

 For console/cartridge games:

 5. Distributor.

For online or downloadable games:

6. Web address.

7. "Accessed" OR "Downloaded" followed by the date you accessed or downloaded the game.

So a reference to a game will look like:

Author (Year) Title. [Computer game] Distributor OR Web address and date accessed/downloaded.

Example of citation in text

Blizzard Entertainment (2007) World of Warcraft. [Computer game] http://us.blizzard.com/en-us/games/wow Downloaded 12 December 2012.

Nintendo (2008) Wii Fit. [Computer game] Nintendo UK.

EndNote reference type - use Web Page, add "Computer game" in the Type of Medium section.

Mobile apps

A reference to an app for a phone or tablet should include the following information, in this order:

1. Author’s name (use family name followed by initials) or the corporate author, the organisation that created the app

2. Date of publication (year the app was created or last updated, in brackets)

3. Name of the app, which must be in italics.

4. [Mobile app] in square brackets.

5. Web address where the app was downloaded from. If the app is an Apple one, only available from the ITunes Store, there will not be a Web address available: in this case put "iTunes Store".

6. The date you accessed the app.

So a reference to an app will look like:

Author (Year) App name. [Mobile app] Web address and date accessed.

Example of citation in text

(3 Sided Cube, 2014) or 3 Sided Cube (2014)

It is difficult to cite a particular point within an app. Word the sentence to describe it as clearly as possible. A screenshot may be useful- cite this like an image from a webpage.

Example of reference

3 Sided Cube (2014) Eye Check by Boots Opticians. [Mobile app] https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.cube.bec&hl=en_GB and iTunes Store. Accessed 20 March 2015.

EndNote Reference Type - use Web Page, add "Mobile app" in the Type of Medium section. If the app is from the iTunes store only and does not have a web address, put “iTunes store” into the URL field in the EndNote record.