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Referencing other types of source

Cochrane Database of systematic reviews

A reference to a systematic review within the Cochrane Database will look like this:

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the review. Use family name followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the review.
  4. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Which must be in italics
  5. Issue number for the review in brackets.
  6. Web address.
  7. "Accessed" followed by the last date you looked at the review.

Woodhouse, R., Burton, J. K., Rana, N., Pang, Y.L., Lister, J.E. and Siddiqi, N. (2019) Interventions for preventing delirium in older people in institutional long‐term care. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (4) https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD009537.pub3/full  Accessed 21 August 2019.

EndNote reference type – use Electronic Article. You may have to change the type in EndNote from Journal article. Ensure that the Access Date is entered in the Date Accessed field

Comics, books of cartoons, manga, graphic novels

For individual cartoons within books that are mostly text, see the section on .

A reference to a printed comic, bande dessinée collection, graphic novel, volume of manga, etc. will look like this:

Author(writer), Artist(artist), (this is optional) Inker(inker) (this is optional) (Date) Title. Edition. Volume. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

If the writer and the artist are the same person, you do not need the words "writer" or "artist" after the name.

Examples of references

Beaton, A. (2011) Hark! A vagrant. London: Jonathan Cape.

Bechdel, A.(2006) Fun home: a family tragicomic. Random House.

Wilson, G.W.(writer) and Alphona, A.(artist) (2014) Ms Marvel: no normal. Volume 1. Marvel.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: Wilson and Alphona (2014) or (Wilson and Alphona 2014.)

Example of citing in the text of your work for a direct quote, including if you use an image from the book- give the page number: Beaton (2011: 32). If you want to quote a specific panel, give the panel number within the page, for example: (Bechdel 2006: 12, panel 2).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. The author(s). Use family name, followed by initial(s). Put the word “(writer)” in brackets after the name. If the writer is also the artist, you do not need the words "writer" or "artist".
  2. The artist/illustrator, if this is a different person from the writer. Use family name, followed by initial(s).  Put the word “(artist)” in brackets after the name.
  3. The inker/penciller, if this is a different person from the artist. Use family name, followed by initial(s).  Put the word “(inker)” or “(penciller)” in brackets after the name.
  4. The year of publication (in round brackets).
  5. The title of the book: the subtitle if it has one, which must all be in italics.
  6. The edition number, if it is not the first edition. For example, 2nd edition.
  7. The volume within the comic series, if it has one.
  8. (This is optional) The city or town of publication followed by a colon:
  9. The publisher.

EndNote reference type – use Book (Endnote can’t cope with the brackets saying (writer) and (artist) after the names. You will need to add these in to the reference by hand after you create a plain text version of the assignment (see ). If you need to add the panel number into the citation you will need to use the “Edit citation” function)

E-comics, webcomics and online cartoons

If you read a comic book, graphic novel, volume of manga, etc from an online service like ComiXology, you should cite and reference it like a printed comic.

For webcomics and cartoons, see the section on .

EndNote reference type – use Book for whole books; for individual cartoons use Web Page, add “Cartoon” or “Comic” in the Type of Medium section.

Conferences

Usually you ignore the web address and give the reference as you would for a printed conference paper. You should only include the web address if the proceedings are not available as a print version at all (or you’re not sure).

A reference to a paper presented at a conference and then published as part of the proceedings of the conference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Paper title. In Conference title, conference location and date. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher. Page numbers. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

Examples of references for a paper from a conference

Mendes, L. and Romeo, T. (2014) Children as teachers. In 9th International Online Information Conference, London 3-5 December 2013. London: Learned Information. 320-332.

Paul, J., Stechele, W., Kroehnert, M. and Asfour, T. (2014) Improving efficiency of embedded multi-core platforms with scratchpad memories. In 27th International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems (ARCS), Luebeck, Germany, 25-28 February. VDE Verlag. 371-378. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6775075. Accessed 13 March 2015.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Mendes and Romeo (2014) or (Mendes and Romeo 2014)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the paper. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title of the paper.
  4. The word“In
  5. Title of the conference (and subtitle if present), which must be in italics. This is a name, so all the words should be Capitalised.
  6. Location and Date of Conference.
  7. (This is optional) Town or City of publication followed by a colon:
  8. Publisher of the conference proceedings.
  9. First and last page numbers of the paper (separated by a dash -).

If you used the paper from an online source:

  1. Web address, or DOI if available.“Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the paper.

EndNote reference type - use Conference Paper

Full books of conference proceedings

A conference proceedings reference will look like this:

Editor(s) (Year) Conference title. Conference location and date. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

Example of reference

IEEE (2014) International Conference on Adaptive Science and Technology (ICAST). CSIR International Conference Centre, Pretoria, 25-27 November 2013. New York: IEEE.

Example of citing in the text of your work: IEEE (2014) or (IEEE 2014)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Editor(s) (use family name followed by initials) of the proceedings, or the corporate author- the organisation that ran the conference.
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of conference: subtitle if it has one, which must all be in italics. This is a name, so all the words should be Capitalised.
  4. Location and date of conference.
  5. (This is optional) Place of publication:
  6. Publisher.

If you used the proceedings from an online source:

7. Web address, or DOI if available.

8. “Accessed” followed by the date.

EndNote reference type - use Conference Proceedings 

Historical works

Sources written before 1900 will often lack details such as author and date of composition. If you do not have an author, use the title of the book in the citation and at the start of the reference. If there is no date, use “(no date)”. You could also use an approximate date such as (1150?).

Sources with an author

A reference to a historical book where you know the author will look like this:

Author(s) (Year if known) Title. Translated Name of translator and/or Editor(Year translated or year of edition you have used). Edition. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Examples of references

Bede (no date) History of the English church and people. Translated Sherley-Price, L. (1956) Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics.

Hobbes, T. (1651) Leviathan. (1991 reprint) Cambridge University Press.

Sturlason, S. (1220) Heimskringla: the Norse King sagas. Translated Laing, S. (1844) Everyman Dent.

For a foreword or introduction to an ancient text, reference it as though it were a chapter in an edited book. For example: 

Simpson, D. D. A (1975) Foreword. In Colt-Hoare, R. (1812) The ancient history of Wiltshire. EP Publishing, 1-25. 

Example of citing in the text of your work: Bede (no date) or (Bede no date)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations..

If you are citing a direct quotation and therefore need to include a page number in the citation, you can cite the page numbers of the original or the reprint, as long as you make clear which you are using.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s). Use family name, followed by initials.
  2. Year the book was originally written (in round brackets). If the year is not known, use (no date).
  3. Title and any subtitle, which must be in italics.
  4. Translator of the edition consulted, if it was translated- family name followed by initials.
  5. Editor of the edition consulted, if any- family name followed by initials
  6. Date of translation, or date of the edition of the book that you are using (in round brackets)
  7. Edition number, if it is not the first edition.
  8. (This is optional) City or town of publication followed by a colon:
  9. Publisher.

EndNote reference type – use Ancient Text (In your EndNote record, the date of the original item goes in the Year field; the date of the edition or translation you are using goes in the Date field. If the item has an editor, you need to put their name in to the Translator field) 

Sources with no author

Use the name of the book at the start of the reference where you would usually have the author’s name.

A reference to an anonymous historical source will look like this:

Book title. (Year if known) Translated Name of translator and/or editor (Year translated or year of edition you have used). Edition. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Example of reference

Hrafnkel's saga and other Icelandic stories (no date) Translated Palsson, H. (1971) Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Hrafnkel's saga (no date) or (Hrafnkel's saga no date)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. In place of the author’s name, use the title of the book and any subtitle, which must be in italics.
  2. Year the book was originally written (in round brackets). If the year is not known, use (no date).
  3. The word “Translated” if the book is a translation, or the word “Edited” if the edition of the book has a named editor.
  4. Translator of the edition consulted, if it was translated- family name followed by initials.
  5. Editor of the edition consulted, if any- family name followed by initials
  6. Date of translation, or date of the edition of the book that you are using (in round brackets)
  7. Edition number, if it is not the first edition.
  8. (This is optional) City or town of publication followed by a colon:
  9. Publisher.

EndNote reference type – use Ancient Text (In your EndNote record, the date of the original item goes in the Year field; the date of the edition or translation you are using goes in the Date field. If the item has an editor, you need to put their name in to the Translator) 

Lectures and personal communications

Lectures, presentations, study guides or handouts

It is generally considered to be poor practice to reference handouts and lectures if there are published sources available. Ask your lecturer if you want to reference their lecture and they may be able to guide you to more appropriate sources.

A reference to lecture material (delivered live or electronically) will look like this:

Author or Lecturer (Year) Title. Module name. Institution and Department Name.

Example of reference

Sadik, K. (2016) Week 1: Internet history. COS4008-B Fundamentals of Internet Technology. University of Bradford, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Sadik (2016) or (Sadik 2016)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author’s or Lecturer’s name (use family name followed by initials).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of item
  4. Name of academic module, which must be in italics; include the module code if known.
  5. Name of the institution and department from which the module was delivered.

EndNote reference type - use Book Section 

Personal communications (conversations, emails, interviews, etc)

Personal communications such as conversations should not generally be included in the reference list as they cannot be traced by the reader. However, there may be valid reasons to reference some forms of personal communication such as emails, interviews, or verbal surveys. Make sure that you ask the consent of the person you want to cite. You must anonymise their responses if they ask you to or it is in your ethics guidelines to do so.

For emails, it may be useful to copy the whole email and include it as an appendix to your work.

A personal communication reference will look like this:

Interviewee name (Year) Title (include subject discussed or email title, and your name). [Personal communication] Day and month of communication.

Examples of references

Peters, N. (2008) Telephone interview on ward procedures with J. Stirling. [Personal communication] 27 August.

Stanley, T. (2007) Email to J. Stirling about widening participation. [Personal communication] 18 June.

Example of citing in the text of your work: (Peters 2008, pers. comm., 27 August)

 Here are the full rules about each piece of information:
  1. Name of person who provided the information. Use family name, then initial(s). Use pseudonym or “Anonymous” if needed.
  2. Year (in round brackets)
  3. Title- The medium (Conversation / Telephone conversation / Interview) and the subject of the discussion or title of the email, in italics. Include your name (or the name of the person to whom the information was given).
  4. [Personal communication] in square brackets.
  5. Day and month of communication.

EndNote reference type – use Personal Communication, put “Personal communication” in the Type of Medium section (You will need to edit the citation by hand to note that it is a personal communication and add the exact date (see )

Maps

A reference to a commercially available printed map will look like this:

Author/Publisher (Year) Title, Sheet number (this is optional), Scale. (Series title) (this is optional). Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Example of reference

Ordnance Survey (1999) Anglesey East, sheet 263, 1:25,000. (Landranger series). Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Example of citing in the text of your work: (Ordnance Survey 1999) or Ordnance Survey (1999).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Map author’s/publisher’s name (for most UK maps, this is Ordnance Survey).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title, which must be in italics.
  4. (This is optional) Sheet number,
  5. Scale.
  6. (This is optional)  Series title, in brackets.
  7. (This is optional) City or town of publication:
  8. Publisher.

EndNote reference type - use Map

Online maps

When using maps generated by JISC Geospatial, the date of production of the map and the scale will be shown at the bottom of the page when you generate a file. You will have to give the map a title, based on where you have centred the map.

For most free services, the author can be taken to be the copyright holder of the map data, and the date of creation as being the copyright date.

Most free maps do not give a scale, just a scale bar. You could either measure the scale bar on screen and calculate the scale or put ‘Unknown scale’.

A reference to an online or downloaded map will look like this:

Author/Publisher (Year) Map title Scale. Web address and date accessed.

Example of reference

Ordnance Survey (2020) Whitby 1:1,250. http://edina.ac.uk/digimap Accessed 10 September 2020.

Example of citing in the text of your work: (Ordnance Survey 2020) or Ordnance Survey (2020)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Map author’s/publisher’s name.
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of map, which must be in italics – include the Sheet number or tile if available.
  4. Scale.
  5. Web address of the service that created the map
  6. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the map.

EndNote reference type - use Map

Newspaper articles

If there is no person named as the author of a newspaper article, use the newspaper title as the author.

A newspaper article reference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year). Article title. Newspaper title, day and month, Section and page number.

Examples of references

Hitchens, P. (2010) My opposition to cannabis is based on hard evidence, not prejudice. The Guardian, 15 December, Society section 34.

The Guardian (2016) The Guardian view on cultural ties and Europe: in praise of shared values and ideals. The Guardian, 30 May, Culture section 2.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: Hitchens (2010) or (Hitchens 2010); The Guardian (2016) or (The Guardian 2016)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the article. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the article.
  4. Title of the newspaper, which must be in italics.
  5. Day and month of publication.
  6. Section of the paper (where available)
  7. Page number of the article.

EndNote reference type - use Newspaper Article

Online newspaper articles

Usually you ignore the web address and give the reference as you would for a printed newspaper article.

You should only use this electronic newspaper article format when the newspaper:

  • Has no volume, issue and page numbers, or
  • Is not available as a print version at all (or you’re not sure)

An online newspaper article reference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year). Article title. Newspaper title, day and month. Web address and date accessed.

Examples of references

Hitchens, P. (2010) My opposition to cannabis is based on hard evidence, not prejudice. The Guardian, 15 December. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/dec/15/cannabis-professor-david-nutt-peter-hitchens Accessed 26 March 2014.

The Guardian (2016) The Guardian view on cultural ties and Europe: in praise of shared values and ideals. The Guardian, 30 May. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/may/30/the-guardian-view-on-cultural-ties-and-europe-in-praise-of-shared-values-and-ideals Accessed 31 May 2016.

Examples of citing in the text of your work: Hitchens (2010) or (Hitchens 2010); The Guardian (2016) or (The Guardian 2016)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) of the article. Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the article.
  4. Title of the newspaper, which must be in italics.
  5. Day and month of publication.
  6. Web address.
  7. “Accessed” followed by the date the article was accessed.

EndNote reference type - use Newspaper Article

NICE guidelines

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines should be referenced in the same way as reports.

A NICE Guideline reference will look like this:

Author or Editor(s) (Year) Title. [Clinical guideline]. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Report number. Web Address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Example of reference

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2017) Intrapartum care for healthy women and babies [Clinical guideline]. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. CG 192. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg19 Accessed 19 September 2010.

Example of citing in the text of your work: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2017) or (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence 2017)

The first time you refer to that corporate author by initials in the text you need to spell out the full name in your sentence. Having spelled out the name in full the first time, you can use the abbreviation in further citations of the same document. (The reference in the Reference List needs to match your citations.)

EndNote reference type - use Report, add [NICE guideline] or [Clinical guideline] in the Type of Medium section

Non-English and translated source

Translated works

This is about works commercially translated and published in English. For works that you have read in a different language and/or you have translated yourself, see Works read in a language that is not English.

The title given can be either in English or in the original language (in which case you may wish to add the English title in square brackets). The work should be cited with the author’s name, not the translator’s.

A translated book (or other printed work) reference will look like this:

Author or Editor(s) (Year) Title [English title] Edition. Translated Translator(s). Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Example of reference

Levi-Strauss, C. (1977) Anthropologie structural [Structural anthropology]. Translated Layto, M. London: Allen Lane.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Levi-Strauss (1977) or (Levi-Strauss 1977)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s), editor(s) or corporate author. Use family name, followed by author’s initial(s).
  2. The year the translation was published (in round brackets).
  3. Title and any subtitle, which must be in italics. [English title] in square brackets.
  4. Edition number, if it is not the first edition.
  5. The word “Translated”
  6. Translator(s) of the edition consulted- use family name followed by initials.
  7. (This is optional) City or town of publication followed by a colon:
  8. Publisher.

EndNote reference type - use Book

Works read in a language that is not English

Follow the usual rules for referencing the kind of item you have used, giving the details of the source you looked at, which will include the title and author, in the original language. However, it is useful to add an English translation in [square brackets] immediately after each section, particularly if the book’s details are in non-European characters like Chinese, Arabic, etc.

EndNote reference type - use Book for books, Journal Article for journal articles etc.

Patents

A patent reference will look like this:

Inventor(s) (Year) Title. Authorising organisation and patent number. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the internet).

Example of reference

Allard, R.J.W., Dyson, J. and Spaven, J.W. (2006) A Cleaning Head. UK Patent Office Patent number GB2402047B. http://gb.espacenet.com Accessed 10 January 2011.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Allard et al. (2006) or (Allard et al. 2006)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Inventor(s) name (surname followed by initials).
  2. Year patent was issued (in round brackets).
  3. Title, which must be in italics.
  4. Authorising organisation.
  5. Patent number.

If the patent was accessed online:

 6. Web address

7. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the standard.

EndNote reference type - use Patent

Reports and organisational policies

Reports are generally produced for reading within an organisation but can be very useful sources. Use this template for sources such as annual reports, organisational policies, technical reports, market research reports, site reports, Historic Environment Records. Published reports can be referenced by following the guidelines under .

PLEASE NOTE: Whilst you would normally name the organisation, remember to anonymise documents from your host institution if you have been told to keep it confidential (for your placement reports, work reports etc.).

A report reference will look like this:

Author or Editor(s) (Year) Title. [Type of report] (do not use if part of title). Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher. Report number. Web Address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

Examples of references

Deegan, A. (2005) Thornborough Henges air photo mapping project: summary of resources and results. Leeds: Archaeological Services. ALSF 3897.https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/thornborough-henges-nmp/ Accessed 10 August 2015.

BMI Research (2016) Chile oil and gas report Q3 2016 : includes 10 year forecast to 2025. London: Business Monitor International.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Deegan (2005) or (Deegan 2005);  BMI Research (2016) or (BMI Research 2016)

Example of anonymised reference

Host Organisation (2017) Ward procedures for the paediatric wards. [Hospital policy document] Host Organisation.

Example of anonymised citing in the text of your work: Host Organisation (2017) or (Host Organisation 2017).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s), editor(s) or corporate author. Use family name followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title and any subtitle, which must be in italics.
  4. Type of report, in square brackets, unless this is obvious from the title- for example [Organisational policy]
  5. (This is optional) Location of the organisation that created the report.
  6. Publisher (originating organisation).
  7. Report number (must be exactly as it is given in the document.)

If you found the report on the Internet:

8. Web address

9. Accessed followed by the date you looked at the website.

EndNote reference type – use Report, add what kind of report it is in the Type of Medium section

Sacred texts

Use the name of the book at the start of the reference where you would usually have the author’s name. Enter the book, chapter and verse, or Surah and verse, as you would a page number in a direct quotation (or clearly identify the location of the text that you cite using the appropriate numbering system for the sacred text you are using).

A reference to a sacred text will look like this:

Title (Year) Section reference. Translated Name of translator. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Examples of references

Bible: contemporary English version (2000). London: Harper Collins.

Holy Qur'an (2014) 8: 12. Translated Dawood, N.J. London: Penguin.

Example of citing in the text of your work Bible: contemporary English version (2000) or (Bible: contemporary English version 2000)

Example of citation in text when citing a particular section of the sacred work: Bible: contemporary English version (2000, Matthew 5:10) or (Bible: contemporary English version 2000 Matthew 5:10)

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. The title of the whole sacred text (including the name of the version, where applicable), which must be in italics
  2. Year of publication of the edition you are using (in round brackets)
  3. If you have quoted a particular section: the Surah and verse numbers, or book name, chapter and verse numbers.
  4. (If it was translated) the word “Translated” and the translator’s name – family name followed by initials
  5. (This is optional) City or town of publication followed by a colon:
  6. Publisher of the edition you used.

EndNote reference type – use Ancient Text (You need to put the book name and chapter and verse numbers, or the Surah and verse numbers, into the Pages field in your EndNote record in order for it to display correctly)

Standards

A reference to a standard will look like this:

Authorising organisation (Year) Reference number: Title. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

Example of reference

British Standards Institution (2013) BS ISO/IEC 27001:2013: Information technology: security techniques: information security management systems: requirements. http://bsol.bsigroup.com Accessed 22 July 2014.

Example of citing in the text of your work: (British Standards Institution 2013) or British Standards Institution (2013).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Name of authorising organisation.
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Number and title of standard, which must be in italics. The number must include the identifying letters at the beginning.

If the standard was accessed online:

  1. Web address.
  2. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the standard.

EndNote reference type - use Standard

Theses, dissertations or unpublished research

A thesis or dissertation reference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title. Document type. Institution’s name. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

You can also use this template for unpublished research.

Examples of references

Else, P. (2005) Hormone levels and diabetes mellitus. Unpublished research. Toronto, Canada: The Author c/o St John’s Hospital.

Slater, P. (2006) Person centred nursing: the development and testing of a valid and reliable nursing outcomes instrument. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Ulster.

Yulei, W. (2010) Performance modelling and evaluation of heterogeneous wired / wireless networks under Bursty Traffic: analytical models for performance analysis of communication networks in multi-computer systems, multi-cluster systems, and integrated wireless systems. PhD thesis. University of Bradford http://bradscholars.brad.ac.uk/handle/10454/4423 Accessed 22 July 2017.

Smith, J. (2016) Survey of Bradford small business owners on satisfaction with branding. Unpublished research, conducted as assignment for marketing, planning and strategy module MAR7007-A. School of Management, Faculty of Management and Law, University of Bradford. 

Example of citing in the text of your work: Slater (2006) or (Slater 2006)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s). Use family name followed by initial(s).
  2. Year of creation (in round brackets).
  3. Title and any subtitle, which must be in italics.
  4. Document type, for example Ph.D. Thesis, M.A. Dissertation, Unpublished research or Internal report.
  5. Place name if not part of an Institution’s name, followed by a colon:
  6. Awarding institution.

If you viewed the thesis online:

  1. Web address
  2. “Accessed” and the date you looked at the item.

EndNote referency type - use Thesis

Unpublished archive materials

It is very important to include the number given to the item by the archive, and the institution that keeps the material.

A reference to unpublished archival material will look like this:

Author (Year if known) Item titleIndexing number. Institution.

Example of reference

Wells, C. (no date) Notes on the cremation burials at North Elmham: B 0532 CAL/4. University of Bradford, JB Priestley Library Special Collections.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Wells (no date) or (Wells no date)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author of the item (if known)- use family name followed by initial(s)
  2. Year created, if known, (in round brackets); you can give an approximate date, such as (1875?), or use (no date).
  3. Title of the item, which must be in italics (you may have to create a sensible description to use for the title.) Include the full indexing number given by the archive.
  4. Institution that holds the archive.

EndNote reference type – use Unpublished Work. In order for it to display correctly, include the archive index number in the Title field in your Endnote record, and put the name of the institution that keeps the archive into the Institution field.