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Government and Parliamentary publications (official publications)

Documents produced by government departments

When referencing non-parliamentary official publications follow the instructions for referencing Books. If there is a report number, put this in as part of the title.

So a government publication reference will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title. Report number. Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher.

Example of reference

NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (2001) Undertaking systematic reviews of effectiveness: CRD guidance for those carrying out or commissioning reviews. CRD Report 4. 2nd edition. York: NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.

Example of citing in the text of your work: NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (2001) or (NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination 2001).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

EndNote reference type – use Book (To make EndNote display the report number correctly, you will need to include it in the Title field in the EndNote record)

Parliamentary publications: Command Papers

Command papers include statements of government policy, also known as White Papers; consultation documents, also known as Green Papers; the reports of Royal and Departmental Commissions; annual accounts and the reports of Commissions of Enquiry and international treaties.

A command paper reference will look like this:

Author (Year) Title (command paper reference number). Place of publication (this is optional): Publisher. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

Examples of references

Department of Health (2011) Enabling excellence: autonomy and accountability for healthcare workers, social workers and social care workers (Cm 8008). The Stationery Office. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/216580/dh_124374.pdf Accessed 12 July 2014.

Home Office (2003) Identity cards: the next steps (Cm 6020). London: The Stationery Office.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Home Office (2003) or (Home Office 2003). It is useful to your lecturer to note in the sentence surrounding the citation that this is a command paper, for example: “In the command paper Cm 6737 (Home Office, 2003) it states that…”

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author (the Government department, committee, or organisation submitting the paper)
  2. Year (in round brackets)
  3. Title of the command paper, which must be in italics. This must include command paper number (Cm) (in round brackets), which must be exactly as it is given in the document, including the prefix Cmd/Cm, etc.- these are meaningful.
  4. (This is optional) Place of publication (almost certainly London)
  5. Publisher (almost certainly The Stationery Office).

If you used the paper online:

6. Web Address
7. “Accessed” followed by the date.

EndNote reference type – use Book if you used a printed command paper, use Electronic Book if you used the paper online (Make sure that you include the command paper number as part of the Title field in your EndNote library so that EndNote can display the reference properly. It must be exactly as it is given in the document (including the prefix Cmd/Cm/etc- these are meaningful)

Hansard records

Hansard is the official record of the UK’s Parliamentary proceedings in the House of Commons and the House of Lords.

If you are accessing the online version, you can also include the web address.

A Hansard reference will look like this:

Hansard: House (Year) Title. Day and month, column number. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

Examples of references

Hansard: Commons (2009) Climate change. 5 November, column 1007.http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmhansrd/cm091105/debtext/9105-0006.htm#column_1007 Accessed 9 November 2009.

Hansard: Lords (2009) English Heritage. 12 March, column WA272.http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200809/ldhansrd/text/90312w0002.htm Accessed 9 November 2009.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Hansard: Commons (2009) or (Hansard: Commons 2009)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Hansard: House
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. The title of the debate in italics, including the exact date and column number.

If you used the online version:

4. Web address
5. “Accessed” followed by the date you looked at the document.

EndNote reference type – use Book if you are quoting a printed volume of Hansard. Use Web Page if you used Hansard online. Make sure that you include the exact date of the debate and the column number as part of the title in your EndNote library, so that EndNote can display the reference properly. These must be exactly as they are given in the document.

Laws and other legal documents

Note that this is the Harvard style of referencing laws and other legal documents- students from the School of Law on LLB or LLM courses need to use the OSCOLA style.

Acts of Parliament (statutes)

An Act of Parliament reference will look like this:

Act name and year Web address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

Examples of references

Health Act 2006

Health Service Commissioner for England (Complaint Handling) Act 2015

Local Transport Act 2008 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2008/26/contents. Accessed 31 August 2016.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Health Act (2006) or (Health Act 2006).

Note: A statute is divided into Sections (you write this like “s.1”), Subsections (written like “(1)” and Paragraphs (written like “(a)”). When talking about a specific point in a statute, you must cite the exact point in the body of your text. For example, if you are citing Section 16, Sub-section (2), Paragraph (b) of the Health Act 2006:

Example of citing in the text of your work when citing a specific point: Improvement notices can be issued where NHS bodies are not observing the code of practice relating to health care associated infections (Health Act 2006, s.16(2)(b)).

Yes, this does mean that your citation may be longer than your reference!

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. The title of the Act including the date, which must be in italics (ignore the chapter number)

If you accessed the act online include the following:

2. Web address

3. “Accessed” followed by the date.

EndNote reference type – use Statute (EndNote will not allow the citation to be correctly formatted if you need it to display subsections and paragraphs; you will need to edit the citation by hand. You will also need to edit the EndNote record, entering the name of the act in the author field. (See )

Statutory instruments

A statutory instrument reference will look like this:

Title and year (SI year/number). Web address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

Example of reference

The Food Safety and Hygiene (England) Regulations 2013 (SI 2013/2996) http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2013/2996/pdfs/uksi_20132996_en.pdf Accessed 29 August 2015.

Example of citing in the text of your work (do not include SI number): The Food Safety and Hygiene (England) Regulations (2013)consolidates UK legislation with regard to EU food safety…

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Title and year, which must be in italics.
  2. SI year/number (in round brackets).

If you accessed the instrument online:

3. Web address
4. “Accessed” followed by the date.

EndNote reference type - use Legal Rule or Regulation

Cases from Law Reports

A case reference will look like this:

Names of the parties to the case (Year) Volume number Abbreviated law report series name First page of report.

Examples of references

Campbell v Mirror Group Newspapers Ltd (2004) 2 All ER 995.

Jarvis v Hampshire County Council (2000) 2 FCR 310.

Example of citation in text- case names should be given in italics:

Murphy v Brentwood District Council (1990) 2 All ER 908

When talking about a case for the first time, give its full name (exactly as it appears in the report). In subsequent references, a case can be cited by a shortened name, e.g. Murphy v Brentwood District Council may be referred to as the Murphy case.

If you give a direct quote, also include the specific page number in the in-text citation.

Example of citing in the text of your work when using a direct quote:

Jones v Tower Boot Co Ltd (1997) 2 All ER 406: 411

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Names of the parties, which must be in italics.
  2. Year (in round brackets).
  3. Volume number.
  4. The commonly accepted abbreviated name of the law report series. (For example All ER for All England Law Reports or FCR for Family Court Reporter)
  5. Number of the first page of the report.

EndNote reference type – use Case (EndNote is not able to format the citation correctly- you will need to edit the sentence to include the law report series (See )