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Referencing audio and video sources

Online video

Use this template only for video that was originally created and uploaded for the website that hosts it.

  • If the item is a work by a named director and studio then reference it as a Film (see the Films section).
  • If it is a television programme made for online distribution such as an Amazon Prime series, reference it as a television programme (see Episodes of a television programme).
  • If it is a television programme that was not originally made for the web and has since been uploaded, reference it as a television programme (see Episodes of a television programme).

A reference to an online video, for example a YouTube video,  will look like this:

Author(s) (Year) Title. [Video] Publisher (this is optional). Web address and date accessed.

Examples of references

Farrell, D. (2012) How to HDR timelapse. [Video] https://vimeo.com/38838557 Accessed 13 August 2015.

King’s Fund (2013) An alternative guide to the new NHS in England. [Video] King’s Fund. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CSp6HsQVtw Accessed 15 August 2014.

Example of citing in the text of your work: King’s Fund (2013) or (King’s Fund 2013).

If you are talking about a specific moment in the video, include the timestamp in your sentence.

Example of citation in text when talking about a specific point in the video: the contribution of water damage can be seen at 2m33s in to the video (BarWGrl 2009).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s), or corporate author(s) (if they can be identified). Use family name, followed by initial(s). This can be the screen name or user name of the person who posted the video.
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the video, which must be in italics.
  4. [Video] in square brackets.
  5. (This is optional) Publisher, for example production company.
  6. Web address.
  7. “Accessed” followed by the date you saw the video.

EndNote reference type - use Web Page, add "Video" in the Type of Medium section

Films

Include works by a named director and studio which are available in any format (DVD/Blu-Ray, online via a streaming service, etc). Include short films.

A film reference will look like this:

Director (Year) Title [Film] Country: Studio name.

Example of reference

Welles, O. (1941) Citizen Kane [Film] USA: RKO Radio Pictures.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Welles (1941) or (Welles 1941)

To cite in your text when you are talking about a specific moment in the film, include the timestamp in your sentence.

Example of citation in text when talking about a specific point in the film: …compare the framing at 18m05s and at 87m54s (Welles 1941).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Director’s name. Use family name, followed by initial(s)
  2. Year of production (in round brackets)
  3. Title of the film, which must be in italics.
  4. [Film] in square brackets
  5. Country of production:
  6. Name of Studio.

EndNote reference type – use Film or Broadcast, add “Film” in the Medium section (In order for the reference to display properly, the name of the studio needs to be in the Distributor field in your EndNote record)

Episodes of a television programme

This includes live television, episodes watched on DVD or Blu-Ray, episodes made for TV and watched on a catch-up or streaming service, and also programmes made for online distribution such as Amazon Prime series.

A TV programme reference will look like this:

Director, Producer or Writer (Year) Episode title, series number, episode number [Television programme] Programme/series title. Channel, day and month first broadcast. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

Example of reference

Moffat, S. (2012) Asylum of the Daleks, series 7, episode 2 [Television program] Doctor Who. BBC One, 1 September.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Moffat (2012) or (Moffat 2012)

It is often useful to mention the name of the programme as well as the episode when you introduce the topic, but this is not an official part of the citation.

If you are talking about a specific moment in the video, include the timestamp in your sentence.

Example of citation in text when talking about a specific point in the program: … the framing of the first shot of the damaged Dalek at 16m03s (Moffat 2012)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Director, producer or scriptwriter of the episode- use family name followed by initials of personal name
  2. Year of first broadcast (in round brackets).
  3. Title of episode, series number and episode number if known, all in italics)
  4. [Television programme] in square brackets
  5. Title of programme/series.
  6. Name of channel.
  7. First broadcast date (Day and month).

If it is an online programme:

 8. Web address.

9.“Accessed” followed by the date you saw the video.

EndNote reference type – Film or Broadcast, add “Television programme” in the Medium section (To make EndNote display this properly, you will need to put the episode name and series and episode numbers into the Title field, and the title of the program in to the Series Title field)

A particular section within a television programme

For example, an interview or feature- something that was a recognisably separate section in a show.

A reference to a section within a television programme will look like:

Presenter and main contributor(s) (Year) Section title In: Episode title, series number, episode number (if known) [Television programme] Series title. Channel, day and month first broadcast.

Examples of references

Wark, K. and Osbourne, G. (2015) Interview with Chancellor of the Exchequer [Television programme] Newsnight. BBC One, 16 June.

Wogan, T. (2014) Forget Me Not children’s hospice, Huddersfield In: Appeal Show [Television programme] Children in need. BBC One, 14 November.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Wark and Osbourne (2015) or (Wark and Osbourne 2015)

EndNote reference type – Film or Broadcast, add “Television programme” in the Medium section (To make EndNote display this properly, you will need to put the episode name and series and episode numbers into the Title field, and the title of the program in to the Series Title field)

Special features of a film or TV program on a DVD or Blu-ray

Use this template when a DVD or Blu-Ray contains features not available in the broadcast version.

A reference to a special feature will look like:

Author(s) or Creator(s) (Year) Special feature title In: Title of episode or film, series number, episode number (for television programs). [DVD or Blu-ray] Series title (for television programs). Distribution Company.

Examples of references

Meadows, S. (2007) Director's commentary In: This is England. [DVD]. Leeds: Screen Yorkshire.

The Mill (2008) Special effects for spaceships In: The Last Sontaran, series 2, episode 1. [DVD] The Sarah Jane Adventures.BBC Worldwide.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Meadows (2008) or (Meadows 2008)

It is often useful to mention the name of the program as well as the episode in the sentence when you introduce the topic, but this is not an official part of the citation. (For example: “The Sarah Jane Adventures used CGI effects first developed for Doctor Who. Their use of special effects is discussed in an interview about the SJA episode The Last Sontaran (The Mill 2008) … ”).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Author(s) or creator(s) of special feature- use family name followed by initials.
  2. Year of distribution (in round brackets).
  3. Title of feature In: Title of episode or film, series and episode numbers (if known), all in italics.
  4. [DVD] or [Blu-ray].
  5. (For television programs only) series title.
  6. Distribution company.

EndNote reference type – use Film or Broadcast. Add "DVD" or "Blu-Ray" in the Medium section. To make EndNote display this properly, you will need to put the special feature title, the film or episode title, and the series and episode numbers into the Title field, and the title of the program into the Series Title field.

Episodes of a radio programme

This includes any programme from an identifiable radio station, including live analogue or digital radio, episodes listened to on a streaming service or downloaded from the radio station’s website, and episodes listened to on CD. The web address and date accessed are only essential when the radio station is online-only.

A radio programme reference will look like:

Producer, Scriptwriter or Presenter (Year) Episode title, series number, episode number [Radio programme] Programme title. Radio station name, day and month first broadcast. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

Example of reference

Curran, P. (2009) Computer programmers [Radio programme] The tribes of science. BBC Radio 4, 9 August. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00lxvl7 Accessed 26 August 2015.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Curran (2009) or (Curran 2009).

If you are talking about a specific moment in the audio, include the timestamp in your sentence.

Example of citation in text when talking about a specific point in the programme: …the sound effect of an old modem at 3m25s (Curran 2009).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Producer, scriptwriter or presenter’s name(s)- use family name followed by initials
  2. (Year of first broadcast)
  3. Title of episode, which must be in italics
  4. Series and episode numbers (if known),which must be in italics
  5. [Radio programme] in square brackets
  6. Title of programme.
  7. Name of radio station,
  8. First broadcast date (day and month).

If it is an online programme:

9. Web address.

10.“Accessed” followed by the date you listened to the programme.

EndNote reference Type – use Film or Broadcast, add “Radio programme” in Medium section (To make EndNote display this properly, you will need to put the episode name and series and episode numbers into the Title field, and the title of the program in to the Series Title field)

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

A particular section within a radio program

For example, an interview or feature- something that was a recognisably separate section in a show.

A reference to a section of a radio program will look like:

Presenter and Main Contributor(s) (Year) Section/piece title In: Episode title, series number, episode number (if known). [Radio program] Series title. Radio station name, day and month first broadcast. Web address and date accessed (only if found on the Internet).

Examples of references

Taylor, L. and Bailey, S. (2017) Dementia carers In: Grandfathers - Dementia carers. [Radio program] Thinking Allowed, BBC Radio 4, 22 March. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08jbdrh Accessed 4 September 2017.

Wark, K. and Woolcock, P. (2014) Ackley Bridge In: Crossing the Boundaries of Gender, Race and Class [Radio program] Start the week. BBC Radio 4, 12 June. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08tbdtw Accessed 5 September 2017.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Taylor and Bailey (2017) or (Taylor and Bailey 2017).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Presenter and main contributor(s)- use family name and initials
  2. (Year of first broadcast)
  3. Title of section or piece, in italics (you may have to create a logical title for this)
  4. In: Title of episode if known, Series number and episode number if known, all in italics
  5. [Radio program] in square brackets
  6. Title of series.
  7. Name of station,
  8. First broadcast date (day and month).

If it is an online program:

  1. Web address
  2. "Accessed” followed by the date you listened to the program.

EndNote reference type – use Film or Broadcast, add “Radio program” in Medium section (To make EndNote display this properly, you will need to put the episode name and series and episode numbers into the Title field, and the title of the program in to the Series Title field)

Podcasts or other online audio files

A podcast (or other streaming or downloadable audio file) reference will look like:

Presenter or Scriptwriter (Year) Title. [Podcast] or [Audio File] Publisher (this is optional). Web address and date accessed.

Examples of references

Harkness, S. (2005) Research methods. [Podcast] University of the District of Columbia. http://podcast.udc.edu/sharkness/feed.xml Accessed 28 June 2014.

Lovelock, J. (1996) The Common Cold Unit Recordings. [Audio file] http://sounds.bl.uk/View.aspx?item=021M-C1038X0016XX-0100V0.xml Accessed 3 May 2014.

Example of citing in the text of your work: Harkness (2005) or (Harkness 2005).

See the section on Citing within the text of written work for a complete guide to doing your citations.

Here are the full rules about each piece of information:

  1. Presenter’s or scriptwriter’s name(s). Use family name, followed by initial(s).
  2. Year produced (in round brackets).
  3. Title (or supply a logical title, for example Podcast on…), in italics.
  4. Type of medium- [Podcast] or [Audio file], in square brackets
  5. (This is optional) Publisher (if this can be identified)- for example an institution which created the podcast.
  6. Web address
  7. “Accessed” followed by the date you listened to the podcast.

EndNote reference type – Web Page, add “Podcast” or “Audio file” in the Type of Medium section