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CLA agreement for photocopying and scanning

The University of Bradford has signed up for the Comprehensive CLA License for Higher Education. The license covers photocopying and scanning of paper and digital originals; and digital to digital copying. The purpose of the license is to enable academic staff to create course packs for their students, thus broadening and enhancing the student experience.

Copying and scanning is permitted from:

  • original published editions of books,
  • looseleaf works,
  • law reports, and
  • journals

For the materials listed above copyright must subsist in the United Kingdom or the Photocopying Mandate Territories (United States plus many European countries) not including Excluded Works and Categories of Excluded Material.

The Comprehensive CLA HE Licence permits multiple copies to be made of up to 10% of a book or one chapter (whichever is the greater), or one article from a single issue of a periodical. The maximum number of permitted copies is the number of students on a course plus one.

As with the production of photocopies, scanned copies made available to students may not during any one course of study exceed either singly or in aggregate the greater of 10% of any published edition, or:

  • In the case of a book one complete chapter.
  • In the case of an article in an issue of a serial publication or in a set of conference proceedings one whole article.
  • In the case of an anthology of short stories or poems one short story or poem not exceeding 10 pages in length.
  • In the case of a published report of judicial proceedings, the entire report of a single case. 

Further conditions on scanning

Digital copies may be generated from:

  • Material held in the University of Bradford Library.
  • Material owned by a Faculty or Department.
  • Personal copies of journals or books as long as either the Faculty/Dept or Library also own a copy.
  • A copyright fee paid copy of a journal article or book chapter.
  • Other material not covered by the CLA license for which permission has been given.

Restrictions in the CLA agreement

Certain categories of works are not covered by the CLA license

  • printed music (including the words).
  • maps and charts.
  • newspapers.
  • works on which the copyright owner has expressly and prominently stipulated that it may not be copied under a CLA Licence.
  • workbooks, workcards or assignment sheets.

A separate permission is required to scan from the following

  • Inspection copies.
  • Proof copies (complimentary early editions provided for review purposes)
  • Article reprints or off-prints supplied on a complimentary basis by the journal publisher to a contributing academic author.
  • Non-copyright fee paid copies requested as inter-library loan.
  • Books, journal parts and magazines borrowed on Inter-Library Loan either from the British Library or any other library.

Types of works not covered by the license are discussed on the CLA website.

Copying from works published outside the United Kingdom

International exchange agreements with a number of other countries permit UK licensees to copy legally from foreign magazines, books, journals and digital publications.

Current agreements permit CLA licensees to photocopy titles published in certain territories. In addition, several of these territories extend rights for scanning and for the re-use of digital publications, depending on the type of licence being held. Please refer to the CLA website for details of what type of copying is included for each territory and follow the links to see specific inclusions/exclusions for each country. 

If you wish to scan or copy from any of the works listed by CLA as excluded, you need to contact the rights holder(s) directly for permission prior to copying. In the first instance this tends to be the publisher.

CLA copyright notice