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Reflection models and frameworks.

This section begins with a warning: a single model is often applied differently by different academic disciplines or is often adapted so that the steps or stages incorporate different reflective activities.

Whilst there are only three presented here, there may be others used on your course. It's just important to bear in mind that people have different interpretations of what is effective and which model to adapt and employ.

Graham Gibbs - Reflective Cycle.

The Gibbs cycle is often the most re-interpreted and misinterpreted, too. So check what your tutor wants from each of the stages.

Donald Schön - Reflection-in-action/Reflection-on-action.

This gives a framework for thinking but is not necessarily a step-by-step process to report.

David Kolb - Experiential Learning.

This is really based on Kurt Lewin's work on experiential learning but was progressed to be a set of reflective prompts and even a way to structure a piece of reflective writing.

You might have already noticed that these models have some overlaps which is not surprising given the main function of reflection: to learn from both experience and theory, bringing both together to deepen understanding.